(DE-397: dp. 1,200, 1. 306'0", b. 36'7", dr. 8'7" (mean); s. 21 k., cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 2 40mm., 10 20mm.,2 act., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.); cl. Edsall)
Wilhoite (DE-397) was laid down on 4 August 1943 at Houston, Tex., by the Brown Shipbuilding Co.launched on 5 October 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Corinne M. Wilhoite, the mother of Ensign Wilhoite, and commissioned at Houston on 16 December 1943, Lt. Eli B. Roth in command.
After her shakedown out of Great Sound, Bermuda from 9 January to 10 February 1944, Wilhoite underwent post-shakedown availability at the Charleston (S.C.) Navy Yard from 11 to 21 February. She then got underway for Gibraltar with Convoy UGS (United States to Gibraltar) 34 on 23 February. On two occasions during the voyage, the destroyer escort depthcharged presumed submarine contacts with inconclusive results. After turning the convoy over to British escort vessels once she had passed through the Strait of Gibraltar, Wilhoite returned to the United States with Convoy GUS (Gilbraltar to the United States) 33 and arrived at New York City on 3 April
After a 10-day availability at the New York Navy Yard, the destroyer escort operated briefly with submarines and PT boats and conducted antiaircraft firing practice in Block Island Sound, Brooklyn N.Y., before shifting south to the Tidewater area to pick up Convoy UGS-40 in Hampton Roads late in April.
The transatlantic passage proved largely uneventful but, as the Allied ships transited the Strait of Gilbraltar, the British antiaircraft cruiser HMS Caledon, the destroyer Benson (DD-421), and two minesweepers equipped with special jamming apparatus, Stead~y (AM-118) and Sustain (AM-119), joined the convoy. A recent increase in German air activity had prompted concern over the safety of UGS-40, a large and important convoy consisting of some 80 vessels.
At 2106 on 11 May, Wilhoite's search radar picked up "bogeys" some 18 miles northeast of UGS-40. Two minutes later, the screening ships commenced their barrage. Observers in Wilhoite saw the attacking planes, torpedo-carrying Junkers (Ju.) 88's, sheer away from the flak, fly aft along the transport screen to the northward, and then cut across the stern of the convoy, circling. Soon, as the Ju. 88's came around the stern of the convoy, Wilhoite—coordinating the defense of that sector—sent up several barrages with her 3-inch, 40- and 20-millimeter guns.
About 2123, one Ju. 88 singled out Wilhoite as her target and attacked. The destroyer escort responded by bringing all her guns to bear and fired such a heavy and accurate barrage that the German pilot dropped his torpedo about 2,000 yards from its target. The plane, apparently damaged by the flak, then banked sharply and disappeared in the ship's smokescreen.
The heavy antiaircraft fire from the convoy's escorts and the support by friendly fighters downed an estimated 17 of the enemy torpedo planes. The convoy itself suffered no losses and safely reached its destination, Bizerte, Tunisia. For his part in directing Wilhoite's highly successful sector defense of UGS-40, Lt. Roth, the ship's commanding officer, received a Letter of Commendation.
Wilhoite rested at Bizerte from 13 to 21 May before getting underway to return to the United States with Convoy GUS-40. At 2105 on 29 May, however, Wilhoite and Evarts (DE-6) were detached from the screen of GUS-40 to go to the aid of Task Group (TG) 21.11 which the German U-boat U-549 had brazenly attacked northwest of the Canary Islands, torpedoing Block Island (CVE-21) and Barr (DE-576). The former sank quickly, but the latter remained afloat while Ahrens (DE-675) and Eugene E. Elmore (DE-686) cooperated in sinking the U-boat. The latter then took the stricken Barr in tow.
Wilhoite and Evarts arrived on the scene at 1716 on the 30th; soon thereafter, Robert 1. Paine (DE-678) and Ahrens sailed for Casablanca, Morocco. The remaining ships then set course for Casablanca as well avoiding the track of two homeward-bound U-boats reportedly in the area. On the 31st, the small seaplane tender Humboldt (AVP-21) arrived and assumed command over the little force.
At 0930 on 1 June Eugene E. Elmore cast off the tow of Barr, and Wiihoite picked it up. Moving ahead at eight knots, Wilhoite towed the damaged Barr, despite the latter's cracked hull which made the task of pulling the ship immeasurably more difficult by causing the damaged ship to yaw. Good damage control in Barr later lessened that problem; and, as the convoy neared Casablanca on 6 June, a Dutch tug, HMRT Antic, joined and took the damaged destroyer escort in tow, relieving Wilhoite. PC-480 then relieved Wilhoite and Evarts of screening duties as the ships neared the swept channel at their destination.
Upon finishing fueling at Casablanca, Wilhoite departed that Moroccan port—her commanding officer, Lt. Roth, having earned a second Letter of Commendation for his ship's performance in towing Barr to safety—and sailed to New York with GUS-41. After her arrival there, the ship received repairs at the New York Navy Yard before she sailed on 24 June for battle practices in Casco Bay, Maine. She later acted as a target in training exercises for submarines operating out of New London, Conn., before she once more touched at New York and shifted south to Norfolk where, on 21 July, she joined a hunterkiller task group based around the escort carrier Bogue ( CVE-9) .
Four days after her assignment to Bogue's group, TG 22.3, Wilhoite sortied with that carrier and the rest of her screen, Haverfield (DE-393), Swenning (DE 394), Willis (DE-396), and Janesen (DE-396), bound for Bermuda. While exercising in that area on antisubmarine warfare (ASW) exercises and night battle practice, Bogue and her consorts honed their respective and collective skills in those areas for the rest of July and into the following month.
At 0630 on 3 August, however, a message arrived that abruptly cut short the training. T(; 22.3 was to proceed to the vicinity of 46°15' N, 21°15' W for offensive operations against a westbound enemy submarine. At 1646 on the next day, Wilhoite picked up a sound contact and attacked at 1702; listeners picked up seven detonations but could ascertain no positive results. At 1405 on the 7th, the destroyer escort laid two "hedgehog" projectile patterns and one standard depth charge pattern on a target later evaluated as a school of fish.
Undaunted, the Bogue group pressed on with the hunt. Their vigilance and training utimately paid off. At 0043 on 19 August, night-flying aircraft from Bogue attacked a submarine running on the surface. Wilhoite was the first ship to hear the transmission and relayed it to Bogue. Six minutes later, Haverfield,Janssen, and Swenning headed for the scene, detached to take part in the hunt while Wilhoite and Willis remained with Bogue as her screen. Meanwhile, the carrier launched planes, maintaining the start of a continuous air patrol over the area.
Unfortunately, the trio of destroyer escorts returned empty handed at 1226 on the 20th. However, no sooner had they returned, when carrier aircraft reported attacking a submarine that had just surfaced. Wilhoite Janssen, Haverfield, and Willis headed for the scene— a spot some 60 miles distant—hearing a report at 1443 that the submarine (which had apparently submerged but had been damaged and brought to the surface) had again surfaced and was under attack.
Ultimately, the planes from Composite Squadron 42, flying from Bogue, inflicted enough damage on the submarine—later identified as U-1229—to force the German crew to abandon ship. While Bogue's airmen watched, U-1229's crew went over the side. The submarine—scuttling charges apparently set—exploded and settled into the Atlantic. Later, at 1610, the destroyer escorts arrived on the scene; Wilhoite picked up one body of a German sailor, who was summarily buried at sea. Janssen picked up U-1229's survivors.
Wilhoite, along with the other units of TG 22.3, later received the Presidential Unit Citation for the group's submarine-hunting activities. Wilhoite had been a part of the powerful and sustained offensive during a period of heavy U-boat activity threatening the uninterrupted flow of supplies to the European theater that, since the Allied invasion of France in June of 1944, had assumed great importance. As the citation text concluded: "The gallantry and superb teamwork of the officers and men who fought the embarked planes and who manned Bogue and her escort vessels were largely instrumental in forcing the complete withdrawal of enemy submarines from supply routes essential to the maintenance of our established military supremacy."
But, for ships like Wilhoite, there was little time to rest on her laurels. Germany was not beaten yet; there would still be more U-boats to fight.
Proceeding to Argentia after TG 22.3's kill of U-1229, Wilhoite and her consorts again went after enemy submarines reported in that area. Attacks made over a three-day period, 8, 9, and 10 September, were all unsuccessful. Wilhoite then patrolled off the Grand Banks before she sailed for the New York Navy Yard at the end of September for voyage repairs.
Upon completion of her yard period on 7 October Wilhoite trained off Montauk Point, Long Island, in ASW tactics before she got underway for Norfolk on 14 October with the remainder of CortDiv 61. Joining Bogue at Norfolk and becoming TG 33.3, the ships headed south to Bermuda, arriving there on 23 October. Wilhoite and her consorts subsequently trained in ASW tactics out of Great Sound, Bermuda, into November.
Wilhoite returned to New York with TG 33.3 before the unit put to sea for a "barrier patrol" between Brown's Bank and the Nova Scotia entrance to the Gulf of Maine in early December. Detached from Bogue's screen at 1236 on 7 December, Wilhoite assisted Cockrill (DE-398) in developing a sonar contact until 11 December, when Wilhoite headed for Norfolk.
Wilhoite rejoined Bogue's screen and departed Norfolk on the day after Christmas 1944, bound for Bermuda. The destroyer escort patrolled with TG 22.3 out of Port Royal Bay before she returned to New York for repairs on 16 January 1946. Wilhoite resumed operations with that illustrious aircraft carrier on 20 January, planeguarding for her as she conducted carrier qualifications (carquals) off Quonset Point, R.I.
Detached from that duty on the 21st, Wilhoite sailed for Casco Bay, Maine, where she exercised in ASW and gunnery for a week. She again screened and planeguarded for Bogue off Quonset Point into early February, while the carrier once more ran carquals for her embarked air group. The destroyer escort then spent a period of availability at the New York Navy Yard from 8 to 19 February before she engaged in training operations into late March, out of Casco Bay and Portsmouth, N.H.
Wilhoite departed Casco Bay on 28 March and, on the following day, rendezvoused with TG 22.14—the unit assigned the task of hunting a reported southbound U-boat placed by intelligence information at 46°46' N, 41°30' W. At 1139 on 31 March, Janssen— part of Task Unit (TU) 22.3.1—made a sound contact. Wilhoite picked it up soon thereafter and attacked at 1146, her "hedgehog" hurling a pattern of projectiles six minutes later. She left two deep explosions soon thereafter but could ascertain no evidence of having scored any hits.
After another brief period of unsuccessful "barrier patrols" between 1 and 6 April, Wilhoite trained out of New London in ASW tactics with Mackerel (SS204) and units of Bogue's TG 22.3, before she resumed active U-boat hunting activities. At 2327 on 19 April, Wilhoite went to general quarters to investigate a radar contact and, at 2343, illuminated the area with starshell. The object of the attention turned out to be a large, drifting iceberg.
Meanwhile, the war on the European continent had been nearing its end, but the Battle of the Atlantic continued. Soon after the encounter with the iceberg Wilhoite resumed "barrier patrols" with Bog~e's TG 22.3. She was screening the carrier when Bogue's planes spotted a U-boat running on the surface at 1300 on 23 April. The aircraft attacked, but the U-boat "pulled the plug" and went deep in time to escape.
The next day, U-46 torpedoed and sank Frederick C. Davis (DE-136)—the last American combatant ship loss in the Battle of the Atlantic. However, the U-boat had little time to savor the victory, for the entire scouting line of desroyer escorts moved swiftly to the scene to rescue their sistership's surivivors and to commence ASW operations. U-546 was brought to the surface, damaged' and sunk by gunfire from the destroyer escorts, quickly avenging Frederick C. Davis' loss.
Over the next few days, Wilhoite conducted more "barrier patrols" as part of a group of warships carrying out sweeps in scouting line formation. The ships formed around two escort carriers, Bogue and Card (CVE-13); the former parolling to the south, the latter to the north.
At 2000 on 7 May, Wilhoite, Haverfield (DE-398) and Flaherty (DE-136) proceeded to the scene of a "disappearing radar contact" that had been made by Otter (DE-210). At 2126, Wilhoite reached the point of contact and commenced a search in company with Haverfield, Flaherty, Otter, Swenning, and Varian (DE 798). At 2202, however, the search was cancelled abruptly, and the ships returned to their previous scouting line stations. While the ships had been engaged in their search, Germany—worn down by pressure from the western Allies on the one hand and the ceaseless heavy pressure by the Russians on the other —surrendered at Reims, France, on 7 May. World War II, as far as the European theater was concerned, was over.
Nevertheless, Wilhoite remained at sea on "barrier patrol" until 9 May, when she headed for New York City. The destroyer escort was repaired there from 11 to 19 May before she shifted south for more major repairs and alterations at the Charleston (S.C.) Naval Shipyard in preparation for the ship's upcoming deployment to the Pacific—still very much an active theater of war in the spring of 1946.
Wilhoite trained at Guantanamo Bay after her refit at Charleston and then headed for the Pacific, transiting the Panama Canal on 16 July. Arriving at San Diego, Calif., on the 24th, Wilhoite sailed for Hawaii with CortDiv 69—Edsall (DE-129), Stewart (DE-238), and Moore (DE-240)—arriving there on 6 August. In ensuing days, Wilhoite and her consorts trained in Hawaiian waters.
Wilhoite had arrived too late to participate in active operations, however, because the war in the Pacific ended while she was training in the Hawaiian Islands. On 14 August 1946 (west of the international date line), the Japanese capitulated.
Wilhoite departed Pearl Harbor on 20 August bound for Saipan in the Marianas. After her arrival there she escorted SS Sea Sturgeon to Okinawa in company with the minesweeper Ptarinigan (AM-376). While engaged in that local escort duty, Wilhoite was forced to reverse course off Okinawa during a typhoon; the ship did not enter Buckner Bay, but proceeded instead back to Saipan.
Meanwhile, the surrender of Japanese garrisons was proceeding apace. In late September, Wilhoite sailed for Marcus Island, relieving Gilmore (DE-18) there as station ship on 27 September. Anchoring off the south shore of the island, Wilhoite supported the small American occupying force in case of any trouble with the garrison of some 2,400 Japanese troops still on the island. By 8 October, the latter was on board the transport Daikai Maw and on its way back to Japan. Wilhoite, herself, in company with LCI-336, departed Marcus on 12 October bound for Saipan.
Wilhoite subsequently operated on local escort missions to Pagan Island, Agrihan Island, and Iwo Jima and then she supported the American occupation of Japan until 6 January 1946. At that time, the destroyer escort—her task in the Far East completed—sailed for the United States, via Saipan and Pearl Harbor.
After touching at San Diego, she proceeded on to New York, via the Panama Canal. Following a complete overhaul at the New York Naval Shipyard, Wilhoite shifted south to Green Cove Springs, Fla., where she was decommissioned on 19 June 1946 and placed in the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.
Her sojourn in reserve was to last through the Korean War of 1960 to 1963. Taken out of reserve and reactivated in 1964, Wilhoite underwent an extensive conversion to a radar picket ship, receiving sophisticated radar equipment.
Reclassified to DER-397 on 2 September 1964, Wilhoite was recommissioned on 29 January 1966 at the Charleston Naval Shipyard, Lt. Comdr. Lambert V. Forde in command, but remained in dockyard hands at Charleston for final installation of equipment and further tests until 22 March. She then proceeded, via Norfolk, Va., to Guantanamo Bay Cuba, for a rigorous 10-week shakedown. After Ler post-shakedown availability, Wilhoite sailed for the Pacific on 20 July; she officially became part of the Pacific Fleet's CruiserDestroyer Force on the 24th.
Upon her arrival at her new home port, Seattle, Wash., on 12 August, Wilhoite became a unit of Cort Ron 6 and soon commenced what would become a regular routine of duty as a coastal radar picket ship under the overall direction of Commander, Western Continental Air Defense Command. In the next three years and seven months, Wilhoite conducted a total of 30 picket tours before she sailed for Hawaii and her new home port of Pearl Harbor on 4 March 1969.
For the next four years, Wilhoite operated out of Pearl Harbor on "barrier patrols" and special operationB; ranging as far north as Adak, Alaska, where, on one occasion in December of 1964, a heavy storm with 60-knot winds buffeted the ship against a pier, causing some damage. In 1961, Wilhoite took part in Operation "Deep Freeze '61," crossing the Antarctic Circle on 8 February. During that cruise, she visited ports in New Zealand and Australia before she returned to Pearl Harbor via Pago Pago Samoa.
Besides "special operations' on "barrier patrols" from Pearl Harbor, Wilhoite carried out search and rescue (SAR) missions, ready for any eventuality while on station. During her third SAR patrol, in the autumn of 1963, the ship sighted an approaching Japanese fishing vessel, Kayo Maw. Wilhoite subsequently took on board Eichi Nakata, a man who had been bitten by a shark, and carried him to Midway where he received medical treatment. After that mission of mercy, Wilhoite returned to Pearl Harbor on 22 October 1963.
By the mid-1960's, however, further changes were in store for the veteran warship. The growing pace of incursions by North Vietnamese-backed Viet Cong communist guerrillas against South Vietnam had resulted in escalating American support of the latter. Wilhoite accordingly was deployed to the Western Pacific (WestPac) in the spring of 1965, beginning a cycle of WestPac tours that lasted into 1969.
Wilhoite conducted intermittent WestPac deployments, with corresponding "Market Time" patrols off the coast of Vietnam, into January of 1969. Her's was unsung duty—long hours of ceaseless patrol, aiding the fledging South Vietnamese Navy in detecting and preventing supplies, weapons, and other materials from being infiltrated into South Vietnam by the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese. Often assisted by only two small boats, a Coast Guard patrol boat and aircraft, Wilhoite upon occasion had the responsibility for patrol over 2,750 square miles of ocean—an ample assignment for a ship with the size and range of a radar picket destroyer escort.
Occasionally, there were periods of excitement to enliven an otherwise tedious duty. On 19 June 1966, Wilhoite relieved Kretschmer (DER-329) on "Market Time" station and assumed the duties of "mother ship" to two Navy "Swift" (PCF) boats, providing berthing accommodations for extra crew members and supplying them with food, fuel, and fresh water.
At approximately 2000 on 11 July, a "Market Time" patrol aircraft detected a steel-hulled trawler running darkened some 66 miles from the coast of South Vietnam, on a westerly heading. Wilhoite, notified by radio of the trawler's course, set hers to close and identify the ship, commencing covert surveillance as soon as she picked up radar contact. The next morning, 12 July, Wilhoite closed for identification purposes but later opened the range.
By that point, the trawler had changed course, heading away from the coast; Wilhoite accordingly maintained surveillance for three more days. Entering the "Market Time" area, the trawler drew more pursuers —Gallup (PGM-86), USCGC Point Orient (WPB82319), and PCF-79—all under the command of Comdr. C. R. Stephan, embarked in Wilhoite. On 16 July, Wilhoite intercepted the unidentified trawler five miles from the beach. Ignoring calls to surrender broadcast by a psychological warfare unit embarked in Point Orient, the trawler was soon taken under fire, running aground in flames on a sandbar at the mouth of the River De Say Ky in Quang Ngai province.
Throughout the night, Wilhoite and the other ships intermittently fired into the beached trawler, the following morning, a party went on board the wreck to inspect the damage and learn the nature of her cargo. The holds were found jammed with guns, ammunition, and explosives—the largest arms cache captured during the Vietnam War. Ultimately relieved of her "Market Time" patrol duties on 26 July, Wilhoite sailed for Hong Kong and a period of recreation.
Alternating the tours of duty on Market Time stations with periods in port at Hong Kong, Sasebo, and Yokosuka, Wilhoite periodically returned to such ports as Pearl Harbor and Subic Bay.
Not all of the ship's highlights of "Market Time" operations were combat oriented ones. On 6 September 1968, for example, Wilhoite was called upon to perform an SAR mission, while she was riding out the tail-end of Typhoon "Bess." Assigned to locate a lost Vietnamese Navy PGM, Wilhoite centered her search on a point some 30 miles from the port of Danang. Although she never sighted the PGM, however, the radar picket destroyer escort maintained contact via voice radio; and ultimately, the PGM was able to reorient herself and continue on her voyage.
Later, while returning to her patrol station, Wilhoite came across an Army landing craft, LCU-1481, which had been adrift and lost for some 48 hours. Typhoon "Bees" had proved a nuisance to the LCU, for it had caused damage that had rendered the craft powerless. Wilhoite stood by while another LCU was dispatched from Danang to take the stricken LCU-1481 in tow and bring her to port safely.
Later that autumn, Wilhoite received an availability alongside the veteran destroyer tender Dixie (AD-14) at Subic Bay from 26 to 28 September. On the latter day, the radar picket destroyer escort sortied for "Market Time" once more, relieving the Coast Guard cutter Ingham (WPG-36) on station. Wilhoite later saw her first action of that deployment when she was called upon to deliver gunfire support in an area north of An Thoi. There, Wilhoite shelled an area heavily infested with Viet Cong, destroying or damaging several enemy junks that had attempted to infiltrate war materiel from the north.
Wilhoite departed Vietnamese waters on 16 January 1969, bound for Hawaii. She stopped for fuel at Subic Bay and at Apra Harbor, Guam, before she continued on, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 1 February. After a period of tender availability alongside Isle Rogale (AD-29), from 17 February to 3 March, Wilhoite underwent a restricted availability at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard before she conducted her sea trials at the end of May. On 2 June, the radar picket destroyer escort departed the Hawaiian Islands for the west coast, and she arrived at Bremerton, Wash., a week later. There, on 2 July, Wilhoite was decommissioned.
Simultaneously struck from the Navy list, Wilhoite was sold on 19 July 1972 to General Metals Corp., Tacoma, Wash., and subsequently scrapped.
Wilhoite received the Presidential Unit Citation, a Navy Unit Commendation, and one battle star for World War II service and six battle stars for her duty in Vietnam.
Origins of the Surname
MEANING: Americanized spelling of Willert - A topographic name from Middle High German - wil ‘small settlement’ + leite ‘slope’
Schwaigern, Baden-Württemberg, Germany - Evangelical Lutheran Church - Parish records begin in 1600, making this the effective starting point of the Willheit, Willert, Willhoit, Willhoite, Wilhite, Willhite, Willhide, Wilhyde ancestry.
Do the jobs others said could not be done.
North American Patriarchs
Immigrated to Virginia with the Second Germanna Colony in 1717 - from which all the "Germanna" Wilhites and Wilhoits (and other spellings) descend:
Immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1731 - from which Pennsylvania and Maryland Wilhides and Willhides (and other spellings) descend:
Descendants with Military Service
French and Indian Wars
American Civil War - Union
American Civil War - Confederate States
North American Geographic Centers
- - placekicker for the University of Tennessee football team between 2003 and 2006 - an American actress. She is best known for playing Danielle Chase in My So-Called Life and for voicing Connie D'Amico in Family Guy , former American football cornerback. He played college football at Auburn and was drafted by the New England Patriots in the fourth round of the 2008 NFL Draft - an American pastor and author , a 19th-century American physician and philanthropist of CompuServe invented the GIF file format - America Democratic political consultant and activist , U.S. football player selected by the Denver Broncos , U.S. football player. He was one of the greatest running backs in California prep history , was the first deaf woman to earn a pilot's license. - American professional baseball player, a left-handed pitcher from Tulsa Oklahoma - an American football player and boxer - an American film and television actress, as well as a singer-songwriter - an American football linebacker - United States Naval Reserve and recipient of the Silver Star - artist and writer who is best known for his children's books depicting families with gay parents
Places and Things
- - Yavapai County, Arizona, United States Google Maps - Union Parish, Louisiana, United States Google Maps - Edsall-class destroyer escort built for the United States Navy during World War II named in honor of Thomas Mack Wilhoite - is a historic Italianate style house in Allisona, Tennessee
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USS Barr (DE 576)
USS Barr after conversion to an APD from a Buckley class DE
On 29 May 1944 U-549 slipped undetected through the screen of the hunter-killer group TG 21.11, formed around USS Block Island (CVE 21) (Capt F.M. Hughes, USN) and at 20.13 hours fired three T-3 torpedoes at the carrier about 300 miles west-northwest of the Canary Islands. Two of them struck the ship, followed by another torpedo as coup de grâce about eight minutes later that caused the carrier to sink at 21.55 hours.
At 20.40 hours USS Barr (DE 576) (LtCdr Henry Hamilton Love, USNR) was damaged by a Gnat in the stern and a second Gnat missed USS Eugene E. Elmore (DE 686). But the U-boat was then attacked and sunk by the latter destroyer escort and USS Ahrens (DE 575).
USS Barr (DE 576) was on her first war voyage and the torpedo explosion completely wrecked the ship aft of #2 engine room, killing 15 crew members and injuring 14 others. Two of them died of wounds the next day and were buried at sea. The following morning the injured and about half of her crew were transferred to USS Eugene E. Elmore (DE 686), which took the badly damaged destroyer escort in tow, screened by USS Robert I. Paine (DE 578). The destroyer escorts were later relieved by USS Wilhoite (DE 397) and the Dutch tug Antic took over the tow, arriving in Casablanca on 5 June. After temporary repairs USS Barr (DE 576) was towed by USS Cherokee (ATF 66) to Boston, arriving there on 25 July.
The vessel was converted to an auxiliary high speed transport of the Crosley class, reclassified (APD 39) and re-entered service in November 1944.
More information about the engagement between the hunter-killer Task Group 21.11 and U-549, including photos of the damaged destroyer escort can be found in the U-boat Archive: U-549 sunk by USS Eugene E. Elmore and USS Ahrens on 29 May 1944
Location of attack on USS Barr (DE 576).
If you can help us with any additional information on this vessel then please contact us.
Wartime duties [ edit | edit source ]
On 5 September 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed American neutrality in the conflict and ordered the formation of a neutrality patrol by the Navy to report and track any belligerent air, surface, or submarine activity in the waters off the United States east coast and in the West Indies. The Navy determined that its destroyers were not capable of extended cruises in the North Atlantic and asked that the Coast Guard conduct these patrols. The Coast Guard assigned the Campbell to conduct the first Coast Guard neutrality patrol, which were referred to as "Grand Banks Patrols." Campbell would perform five such cruises, each lasting approximately two weeks, the last such cruise returning to New York on 29 January 1940.
When prepared for convoy escort duty prior to her sailing for Portugal, workers at the New York Navy Yard added three 3-inch 51 caliber guns in-line, aft. Her two signal guns that were directly forward of the bridge were replaced with a single 3-inch 50 caliber gun. Her two 5-inch 51 caliber main batteries remained unchanged. Campbell was the first Secretary Class cutter to transfer for duty with the Navy (on 1 July 1941) and the first to sail on escort of convoy duties when she escorted Convoy HX-159 which sailed on 10 November 1941. Β] The Campbell's permanent station was changed from Stapleton to Boston in February, 1942, and she later exchanged a 5-inch (130 mm) for a 3-inch (76 mm) gun, installed 6 more 20 mm guns, substituted 2 "K" guns for "Y" guns and had splinter protection built around three gun decks, bridge and wheel house.
Campbell, along with Spencer, were the first US warships equipped with HF/DF, pioneered by the Royal Navy for the fight against the German U-boat fleet. The two cutters had been selected by the Navy to serve as test ships to gain experience with HF/DF, using British FH3 systems (carrying the U.S. designation Type DAR) installed in the American shipyard in Northern Ireland under the supervision of experts from the Admiralty Signals Establishment. Γ] As the Royal Navy had already discovered, HF/DF was an important part of combatting the threat posed to Allied convoys by U-boats, and the experience with the interim DAR equipment provided impetus to the U.S. development of its own Type DAQ system. Δ]
When the British and Canadians assumed full responsibility for convoys in the North Atlantic in mid-1943, the US took control of all mid-Atlantic and Mediterranean convoys, where the cutters faced a constant threat from U-boats and the Luftwaffe. Convoys were especially vulnerable once they cleared Gibraltar. Campbell sailed as an escort for Mediterranean convoys in 1943–1944 and saw considerable action against both U-boats and aircraft, with two incidents in particular of note.
U-boat attack, February, 1943 [ edit | edit source ]
On 21 February 1943, Campbell was escorting the 48-ship Convoy ON-166 when the convoy was surrounded by a U-Boat "wolf pack". U-92 and U-753 torpedoed and sank the NT Nielsen Alonso. Dispatched to assist, Campbell rescued fifty survivors and then turned to attack U-753, damaging it so badly that it had to withdraw. Throughout the 21st and 22nd, Campbell attacked several U-Boats inflicting damage and driving off the subs. Later on the 22nd, U-606, having sustained heavy damage, surfaced in the midst of the convoy attempting a surface attack. Campbell struck the sub a glancing blow that gashed Campbell's hull in the engine room below the waterline, but continued to attack, dropping two depth charges which exploded and lifted the sub out of the water. The crew brought all guns to bear on the subs, fighting on until water in the engine room shorted out all electricity. As the ship lost power and the searchlights illuminating the sub went out, the U-Boat commander ordered the sub abandoned. Campbell ceased fire and lowered boats to rescue the sub's survivors. Campbell, disabled in the attack, was towed to port nine days later, repaired and returned to escort duty.
Illustrator Anton Otto Fischer, working for Life Magazine, was serving as a Lieutenant Commander on the Campbell for this voyage. His series of detailed oil paintings depicting the battle and its aftermath appeared in Life's July 5, 1943 edition. Ε]
Additional detail on U606 encounter on 2/22/43 by nephew of the Chief Engineer (added 12/26/2011):
My Uncle Eddy served aboard the Campbell during WWII as Chief Engineer and often told me, as a young boy, the encounter with U606. What has been previously described is accurate and I won’t repeat it. Here are additional details from that encounter. The Campbell engaged U606 after it surfaced but the range was so close the Campbell’s main guns could not be lowered enough to fire on the sub. The Campbell’s captain decided to ram the sub, the Campbell had an ice breaker bow. As the two vessels closed on each other, small arms fire was exchanged and the U-boat was still under power with her diesels. The U-boat’s captain, realizing he was going to be rammed turned towards the Campbell in an attempt to avoid being rammed, and perhaps realizing their closeness was protecting his U-boat from the Campbell’s main batteries. One can possibly assume the U-boat captain was attempting to get aft of the Campbell to try to outrun her on the surface. As the two vessels approached each other, whether intentionally or not, the sub’s diving planes were still full extended outward. As the two ships sideswiped each other the sub’s diving plane sliced the Campbell open like a can opener, allowing water to enter her engine and boiler rooms. As the two ships opened distance again, the Campbell quickly lost all engine and electrical power and her guns could not be fired or brought to bear without electrical power. The U-boat captain, most likely unaware of the extensive damage to the Campbell. scuttled his ship. With the Campbell’s engine and boiler rooms totally flooded, the Campbell had no propulsion, no defenses other than small arms, no electric power, lights or heat, and the pumps on the Campbell were inoperative. The gash in the hull extended for several inches into an adjacent watertight compartment and if it flooded the Campbell could not stay afloat. The crew rigged some sort of matting and my Uncle Eddy when into the frigid water, in a hard hat diver’s suit, to weld a plate or the matt over the gash in the adjacent compartment to stop the flooding. He was awarded a medal for undertaking this dangerous repair and dive. My Uncle said they could not send out a distress signal (radio had backup batteries) because German U-boat might detect their sitting duck predicament and finish her off. During the nine days they were adrift in the freezing North Atlantic, my Uncle said they spotted more than one periscope but the Germans probably assumed the Campbell was playing dead in an effort to sucker a U-boat to take shot at them. Finally the Polish manned destroyer Burza came upon the disabled Campbell and towed her to port. After the Campbell was towed to port for repairs, it was discovered U606’s diving plane was still stuck in the side of the Campbell. The diving plane was cut up into small pieces by the shipyard and a piece was given to each crew member. I saw the piece my Uncle Eddy had but it is now long gone.
Luftwaffe attack, May, 1944 [ edit | edit source ]
In April 1944, the Convoy UGS-40, consisting of some 80 vessels, sailed for the Mediterranean, led by Campbell. The escort screen contained three destroyers, six American destroyer escorts from CortDiv 5, and two French destroyer escorts. Due to recent attacks by the Luftwaffe against Allied convoys in the western Mediterranean, UGS-40 sailed with an elaborate air defense plan, formulated by the convoy's screen commander, Comdr. Jesse C. Sowell, aboard the Campbell. Practiced in Hampton Roads prior to the convoy's departure and as it crossed the Atlantic, these tactics were designed to meet mass aerial attacks by German aircraft carrying a variety of weapons ranging from bombs, to torpedoes, to radio-controlled glider bombs. Off Gibraltar, UGS-40 acquired additional escorts: British antiaircraft cruiser HMS Caledon (D53), USS Wilhoite (DE-397), USS Benson (DD-421), and two American minesweepers (USS Steady (AM-118) and USS Sustain (AM-119)) carrying special apparatus to jam radar transmissions and thus confuse the German glider bombs. On 9 May 1944, the convoy possed through the Straits of Gibraltar en route to Bizerte, Tunisia, without incident, but two days later detected German "snoopers" trailing the convoy. In the next few hours, 10 successive shore-based fighter interception sorties failed to drive off the enemy reconnaissance aircraft. First alerted by shore-based radar, the escort screen went to general quarters at 13:16 on 11 May, beginning the first of five successive alerts. In Campbell, Commander Sowell warned the escorts to be alert to the possibility of a dusk attack. At 20:25, radar noted the approach of enemy aircraft, and Sowell formed the convoy into eight columns 1,000 yards (910 m) apart for maneuvering room. When the enemy was reported 70 miles (110 km) north of Cape Corbelin, UGS-40 steered due east, past Cape Bengut. Shortly after sunset, escort ships commenced laying smoke screens, as the German aircraft, a mixed force of Junkers (Ju.) 88's, Heinkel He. 111's, and Dornier Do. 217's, approached from the stern of the convoy and broke into groups to attack from different points of the compass. The destroyer escorts and friendly fighter craft downed an estimated 17 of the enemy torpedo planes, and drove away all the remainder, and the Allied convoy emerged unscathed.
My father, Anthony Accardi from Boston, MA, served aboard the Campbell during WWII. He participated in the sinking of U606 and the Luftwaffe attack in 1944.
Engraved on this lamp is the description of an air attack on the USS Campbell in 1944
Passed down through the family is a wooden lamp made on the ship shortly after the attack. Engraved in pencil is this description of the battle: “Thursday, May 11, 1944. While on convoy duty in the Mediterranean Sea off Algiers, we were attacked by thirty or more German Planes composed of Junker 88’s, Heinkel 111’s. Thirteen were shot down, five more left the scene smoking, three torpedoes were shot at us, one missed us by only ten feet. There was no one killed and no ships in our convoy were lost. The attack lasted thirty-Nine minutes from 9:06 to 9:46.”
On the opposite side of the lamp Gun Crew No 6 is listed as such: Battery Officer-Lt Tom Lin, Gun Capt- Trahant, Pointer- Accardi, Sightsett- Piper, Trainer- Wiliams, 1st Shellman- Rosta, 2nd “ -Hill, Ranner, Pressagno, 1st Powderman- Hall, 2nd “ - Lucas, 3rd “ - Vosnick, Trayman, Korecki,
Convoys escorted [ edit | edit source ]
|ON 28||31 Oct-3 Nov 1941 Ζ]||from Iceland to Newfoundland prior to US declaration of war|
|HX 159||10-19 Nov 1941 Η]||from Newfoundland to Iceland prior to US declaration of war|
|ON 39||29 Nov-4 Dec 1941 Ζ]||from Iceland to Newfoundland prior to US declaration of war|
|HX 166||25-31 Dec 1941 Η]||from Newfoundland to Iceland|
|ON 53||9-19 Jan 1942 Ζ]||from Iceland to Newfoundland|
|HX 174||MOEF group A3||9-17 Feb 1942 Η]||from Newfoundland to Northern Ireland|
|ON 69||MOEF group A3||25 Feb-4 March 1942 Ζ]||from Northern Ireland to Newfoundland|
|SC 76||MOEF group A3||28 March-11 April 1942 ⎖]||from Newfoundland to Northern Ireland|
|HX 190||MOEF group A3||20–27 May 1942 Η]||from Newfoundland to Northern Ireland|
|ON 102||MOEF group A3||10–21 June 1942 Ζ]||from Northern Ireland to Newfoundland|
|HX 196||MOEF group A3||2–10 July 1942 Η]||from Newfoundland to Northern Ireland|
|ON 114||MOEF group A3||20–30 July 1942 Ζ]||from Northern Ireland to Newfoundland|
|SC 100||MOEF group A3||16-27 Sept 1942 ⎖]||from Newfoundland to Northern Ireland|
|ON 135||MOEF group A3||3-14 Oct 1942 Ζ]||from Northern Ireland to Newfoundland|
|HX 212||MOEF group A3||23 Oct-1 Nov 1942 Η]||from Newfoundland to Northern Ireland|
|ON 145||MOEF group A3||10-20 Nov 1942 Ζ]||from Northern Ireland to Newfoundland|
|ON 156||25-30 Dec 1942 ⎖]||Iceland shuttle|
|HX 223||MOEF group A3||19-late Jan 1943 Η]||from Newfoundland to Northern Ireland|
|Convoy ON 166||MOEF group A3||12-22 Feb 1943 Ζ]||from Northern Ireland to Newfoundland|
Networking with Wilhoite Researchers
In the course of genealogy research, collaboration is key -- we really cannot do it alone, and one of the great benefits of participating in community message boards is building relationships that not only enlightens our research but strengthens bonds across the miles. The article "Looking for John Smith - Focusing a Query" provides some valuable tips for posting successful Wilhoite queries.
You may also want to consider posting a query to the Community Message Boards at Genealogy Today to get assistance from other researchers on your most elusive Wilhoite ancestors.
The Colfax Massacre (1873)
The Colfax Massacre occurred on April 13, 1873. The battle-turned-massacre took place in the small town of Colfax, Louisiana as a clash between blacks and whites. Three whites and an estimated 150 blacks died in the conflict.
The massacre took place against the backdrop of racial tensions following the hotly contested Louisiana governor’s race of 1872. While the Republicans narrowly won the contest and retained control of the state, white Democrats, angry over the defeat, vowed revenge. In Colfax Parish (county) as in other areas of the state, they organized a white militia to directly challenge the mostly black state militia under the control of the governor.
Colfax Parish reflected the political and racial divide in Louisiana. Its 4,600 voters in the 1872 election were split between approximately 2,400 hundred mostly black Republican voters and 2,200 white Democratic voters. One incident however, touched off the Colfax massacre. On March 28, local white Democratic leaders called for armed supporters to help them take the Colfax Parish Courthouse from the black and white GOP officeholders on April 1. The Republicans responded by urging their mostly black supporters to defend them. Although nothing happened on April 1, the next day fighting erupted between the two groups.
On April 13, Easter Sunday, more than 300 armed white men, including members of white supremacist organizations such as the Knights of White Camellia and the Ku Klux Klan, attacked the Courthouse building. When the militia maneuvered a cannon to fire on the Courthouse, some of the sixty black defenders fled while others surrendered. When the leader of the attackers, James Hadnot, was accidentally shot by one of his own men, the white militia responded by shooting the black prisoners. Those who were wounded in the earlier battle, particularly black militia members, were singled out for execution The indiscriminate killing spread to African Americans who had not been at the courthouse and continued into the night.
All told, approximately 150 African Americans were killed, including 48 who were murdered after the battle. Only three whites were killed, and few were injured in the largely one-sided battle of Colfax.
Wilhoite DE-397 - History
A carrier task group is only as strong as its supporting destroyers. The following destroyers / destroyer escorts are mentioned in the history of CVE 21 or the history of CVE 106. The table indicates some of the characteristics of the destroyers / destroyer escorts mentioned on this website.
|DD||Bagley||2,325||341||39||6,500||251||4-5″ 4-50cal Torpedos Depth Charges|
|DE||Buckley||1,740||306||24||5,500||213||4-1″ 3-3″ Torpedos Hedgehogs Depth Charges|
|DE||Cannon||1,620||306||21||10,800||216||3-3″ 2-2″ 8-1″Torpedos Hedgehogs Depth Charges|
|DE||Clemson||1,308||315||36||4,900||132||4-4″ 1-3″ Torpedos|
|DE||Edsall||1,590||306||21||10,800||186||3-3″ 2-2″ 8-1″ Torpedos Hedgehogs Depth Charges|
|DD||Fletcher||2,500||377||37||5,500||329||5-5″ 10-2″ 10-1″Torpedos K-guns Depth Charges|
|DD||Gleaves||1,630||348||37||6,500||276||4-5″ Torpedos Depth Charges|
|DE||Rudderow||1,740||306||24||5,500||213||2-5″ 4-2″ 10-1″ Torpedos Hedgehogs Depth Charges|
The destroyers are listed by hull number. The list does not include all of the destroyers that were associated with the two carriers.
DE 51 Buckley (CVE 21)
DE 51 Buckley, a Buckley class destroyer escort, was commissioned on 30 Apr 1943. Between Jul 1943 and 22 Apr 1944 Buckley operated along the eastern seaboard as training ship for prospective officers and nucleus crews of other destroyer escorts.
On 29 Apr 1944 she joined CVE 21 Block Island as part of a hunter-killer task group. On 6 May 1944 CVE 21 ordered DE 51 to intercept German U-boat U-66 which had been spotted by aircraft. DE 51 commenced an attack on the submarine and at 0328 hours Buckley rammed U-66 and after a fight that was often hand to hand sunk the submarine. USS Buckley Captain, LCDR Brent Maxwell Abel USNR received the Navy Cross for his actions in the encounter with U-66.
In Jul 1944, Buckley escorted two convoys to North Africa and then operated on anti-submarine and convoy escort duty along the eastern seaboard. Buckley and DE 153 Reuben James sank the German uboat U-548 on 19 Apr 1945. Buckley was placed in reserve 3 Jul 1946.
DE 102 Thomas (CVE 21)
DE 102 was the second USS Thomas, a Cannon class destroyer escort, she was commissioned on 21 Nov 1943. She sailed with CVE 21 USS Block Island on her third combat cruise departing 16 Feb 1944.
DE 102 Thomas was involved in the sinking of three German submarines: U-709, U-233 which was rammed after being forced to the surface by depth charges, and U-548. After being decommissioned in Mar 1946, Thomas was transferred to the Chinese Navy.
DE 103 Bostwick (CVE 21)
DE 103 USS Bostwick, a Cannon class destroyer escort, was commissioned on 1 Dec 1943. On 15 Feb 1944, Bostwick joined CVE 21 USS Block Island and designated Task Group 21.16 as a hunter-killer group in the U-boat-infested waters of the North Atlantic.
Late on 29 Feb 1944, Bronstein made a radar contact and along with Bostwick and Thomas surrounded the target, German submarine, U-709. The three destroyer escorts dropped depth charges on her estimated position. At 0324 hours, Thomas dropped a pattern of charges that produced a huge underwater explosion, the last sounds heard from U-709.
During late March, April, and early May she served as a convoy escort. On 25 Jun 1944, she joined USS Card on another hunter-killer patrol. Thomas rammed U-233 on 5 Jul 1944. On 29 Apr 1955, Bostwick, Thomas, and Coffman joined Natchez in dropping depth charges until a huge underwater explosion indicated the destruction of U-548. Bostwick was decommissioned on 30 Apr 1946.She was sold to nationalist China on 14 Dec 1948.
DE 104 Breeman (CVE 21)
DE 104 USS Breeman, a Cannon class destroyer escort, was commissioned on 12 Dec 1943. On 16 February, Breeman joined USS Block Island Task Group 21.16 On 19 Mar 1944, planes from CVE 21 Block Island sank U-1059, and Breeman assisted in the rescue of the U-boat’s survivors.
Breeman joined several other task groups doing Atlantic hunter-killer searches for the remainder of WWII. Breeman was decommissioned on 26 April 1946 and transferred to the Nationalist Chinese government based on Taiwan.
DE 183 Samuel S. Miles (CVE 106)
DE 183 USS Samuel S. Miles, a Cannon class destroyer escort, was commissioned on 4 Nov 1943. Serving as an escort ship in the Marshall Islands area, she protected fleet oilers during fast carrier air strikes against the Caroline Islands and the Hollandia, New Guinea, area in Apr 1944.
She escorted oilers during the capture of Saipan and Tinian, and splashed two Japanese planes on 18 Jun 1944. She also supported the Leyte and Luzon, Philippine Islands, campaigns in late 1944 and early 1945. Samuel S. Miles sank Japanese submarine I-177 near the Palau Islands on 3 Oct 1944. After guarding the invasion force at Iwo Jima in Feb 1945, she screened the bombardment group that pounded Okinawa, where she splashed one enemy plane on 27 Mar 1945. She sailed with CVE 106 USS Block Island to Okinawa in Apr 1945.
A kamikaze near-miss killed one of her crew members on 11 Apr 1945. She was decommissioned on 28 Mar 1946. DE 186 was transferred to France on 12 Aug 1950.
DE 189 Bronstein (CVE 21)
DE 189 USS Bronstein, a Cannon class destroyer escort, was commissioned on 13 Dec 1943. The destroyer escort was assigned to CVE 21 Block Island’s Task Group 21.16 along with DD 463 Corry, DE 102 Thomas, DE 104 Breeman , and DE 103 Bostwick. On 16 Feb 1944 the group left Norfolk. On the evening of 29 Apr, Thomas made a surface radar contact, and Bostwick was ordered to assist her in the search for the contact. CVE 21 Block Island had directed Bronstein to search for a second suspected U-boat when one of her star shells revealed U-709 on the surface preparing to attack Thomas and Bostwick. Bronstein opened fire, and her guns registered several hits. The submarine went deep to escape, and the three destroyer escorts attacked her with depth charges. Thomas finally sank U-709 early the next morning.
The second U-boat maneuvered to attack the Block Island, Bronstein immediately began dropping depth charges. A tremendous explosion indicated the end of the Uboat, later identified as U-603.
The Block Island group made radar contact four days later with U-801. The submarine surfaced on the evening of 16 Mar 1944 and was attacked by aircraft from CVE 21. The U-boat dived and managed to evade the hunters until the early hours of 17 Mar, when the German sub sent a radio message. Corry ran down the bearing of the transmission, and she and Bronstein methodically boxed in the U-boat, forcing her to surface. The crew abandoned and scuttled their boat.
Bronstein proceeded to Norfolk to join a hunter-killer group formed around CVE 11 USS Card. Designated task group TG 21.10, DE 190 Baker and Thomas sank U-233 on 5 Jul near Newfoundland. Bronstein was decommissioned on 17 Jun 1946 and sold to Uruguay.
DD 213 Barker (CVE 21)
DD 213 USS Barker, a Clemson class destroyer escort, was commissioned 27 Dec 1913. From 1913 to 1941 DD 213 served the U.S. Navy in several roles visiting ports around the world. On 7 Dec 1941, DD 213 Barker was at Tarakan, Borneo, and immediately commenced patrolling the surrounding area. She participated in the anti-aircraft actions off Bali (4 Feb 1942) and Banka Island (15 Feb 1942). Barker was damaged by near misses during this action. Between Oct 1942 and May 1943, Barker escorted convoys between San Francisco, CA and Pearl Harbor.
On 27 Jun, she joined the USS Core hunter killer task group 21.12. German submarine U-487 was sunk by aircraft from the Core on 13 Jul and Barker rescued 33 survivors. On 24 Aug Core’s aircraft found and sank U-534 and U-185. DD 213 Barker rescued 36 survivors of U-185.
On 15 Oct 1943 Barker joined CVE 21 Block Island task group 21.16 to provide convoy escort duty. She arrived at Philadelphia 4 Jun 1945, and was decommissioned 18 July.
DD 218 Parrott (CVE 21)
DD 218 Parrott, a Clemson class destroyer escort, was commissioned 11 May 1920. From 1920 to 1941 DD 218 served the U.S. Navy in several roles visiting ports around the world.
After dark, on 23 Jan 1942, Parrott, with John D. Ford, Pope and Paul Jones, entered Balikpapan Bay where, lying at anchor, were 16 Japanese transports and three 750-ton torpedo boats, guarded by a Japanese Destroyer Squadron. The Allied ships fired several patterns of torpedoes and saw four enemy transports and one torpedo boat sink as the Japanese destroyers searched in the strait for non-existent submarines.
She engaged the enemy in Sumatra and Bali.
On 21 May 1943, she sailed for New York and reported for transatlantic convoy duty. She completed one convoy passage before joining Paul Jones and Belknap in an offensive antisubmarine group with Croatan. She operated with this group until 15 Oct 1943 when she transferred to another antisubmarine group formed around CVE 21 USS Block Island.
Parrott participated in sinking U-220 on 28 Oct 1943 which was credited to the Block Island’s planes.
While getting underway for Norfolk on 2 May, Parrott was rammed by John Morton, and was so severely damaged she had to be beached by tugs. Later towed to Norfolk Naval Shipyard, she was decommissioned 14 June 1944.
DD 222 Bulmer (CVE 21)
DD 222 USS Bulmer, a Clemson class destroyer escort, was commissioned on 16 August 1920.When the United States entered WWII, Bulmer was still assigned to the Asiatic Fleet and stationed in the Philippines. DD 222 Bulmer took part in the Battle of Bali Sea on 4 Feb 1942. From Jun 1942-May 1943, she operated as an escort vessel for convoys sailing between Pearl Harbor and San Francisco.
Bulmer was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet in May and arrived at New York on 14 Jun. Her first Atlantic assignment was as a unit of Task Group 21.12 (TG 21.12) from 14 Jun-22 Sep. During this sweep of the North Atlantic, aircraft from Core sank U-487 on 13 Jul 1943.
DD 222 Bulmer joined task group 21.16 as part of the CVE 21 USS Block Island hunter-killer group. She then commenced convoy escort duty between northeastern Atlantic ports and North Africa until Jul 1944. Bulmer was decommissioned on 16 Aug 1946 and sold.
DD 230 Paul Jones (CVE 21)
DD 230 USS Paul Jones, a Clemson class destroyer, was commissioned 19 Apr 1921. Until the outbreak of WWII she served in the Asiatic Fleet. She received the news of the attack on Pearl Harbor 8 December 1941, at Tarakan, Borneo, and immediately prepared for action. She took part in Pacific operations in Java, Bali, and Timor before being assigned escort duty between California and Pearl Harbor which continued until the end of March 1943.
Sailing in company with DD 218 Parrott and DD 213 Barker, DD 230 Paul Jones departed San Francisco 30 March, transited the Panama Canal and reported to New York where she commenced convoy escort duty 28 May 1943 between North African ports and the U.S.
On 5 Oct 1943 the destroyers DD 230 Paul Jones, DD 218 Parrott, DD 213 Barker, and DD 222 Bulmer escorted CVE 21 USS Block Island as they left Hampton Roads, VA as Task Group 21.16 . This was CVE 21’s first combat cruise. DD 230 also participated in the second cruise, 15 Dec 1943. Convoy assignments and training operations continued until the end of WWII. She was decommissioned 5 Nov 1945.
DE 326 Thomas J. Gary (CVE 106)
DE 326 USS Thomas J. Gary, an Edsall-class destroyer escort, was commissioned on 27 Nov 1943. She escorted a number of transatlantic convoys until May 1945. She completed her last Atlantic convoy upon her arrival at New York on 7 May 1945. On 1 Aug 1945, she departed Oahu with Escort Division 57 and steamed for Guam where she again got underway, this time with Carrier Division 27. As the force steamed toward the Philippines, word of Japan’s surrender reached the ship. Following her arrival at San Pedro Bay on 17 August, Thomas J. Gary remained in port until the 29th when she departed Leyte to screen the aircraft carriers of Task Group (TG) 77.1 during their passage to Korea. CVE 106 Block Island with CVE 29 Santee and four destroyers sailed for Leyte Gulf on 13 Aug 1945.
En route, the task group was diverted to Formosa. DE 326 Thomas J. Gary was designated to assist in the liberation of Allied prisoners of war who had been held on that island. On 3 Sep, she embarked 19 marines from Block Island charged with arranging the details of the evacuation of the POWs. Her division commander was also responsible for making the preliminary arrangements for the occupation of Formosa.
Before dawn of 5 Sep off the coast of Formosa, DE 326 Thomas J. Gary and DE 329 Kretchmer were detached from the escort carrier task group. Resistance from die-hard Japanese was still a distinct possibility.
As the two ships approached the waters most apt to be mined, the American sailors maintained a state of readiness to repel possible attack. Four Combat Air Patrol planes provided cover, and two anti-mine sweep planes from the carriers relayed word of the sightings of possible mines as the destroyer escorts picked their way through the hazardous approaches to Kiirun. The ships maintained a condition of modified general quarters and stationed armed guards on shore. A detail headed by Thomas J. Gary’s communications officer took over the local Japanese radio station to insure reliable communications between the task group and Japanese authorities in Kiirun. At 1630 hours, a train arrived bearing Allied prisoners of war who were quickly transferred to the waiting destroyer escorts.
DE 326 rendezvoused with the CVE 106 and CVE 29 carriers and transferred the newly freed POWs to the larger ships.
She was decommissioned on 7 Mar 1947 and placed in reserve. On 24 Jul 1956, she was converted to radar picket escort ship and, on 1 Nov 1956, she was designated DER-326. She served the U.S. Navy until 1973 when she was transferred to Tunisia. She sustained a major fire in Apr 1992 and is no longer operational.
DE 327 Brister (CVE 106)
DE 327 USS Brister, an Edsall class destroyer, was commissioned 30 Nov 1943. Between Jun 1944 and Jun 1945, Brister made seven Atlantic escort crossings to Italy and England. On 8 Jun 1945 she departed New York City for the Pacific, arriving at Pearl Harbor, HI after a stop in San Diego. She was active in Far East patrol and escort operations until April 1946. USS Brister assisted CVE 106 in the evacuation of POWs from Formosa. She was stricken from US Navy records 23 Sep 1968.
DE 328 Finch (CVE 106)
DE 328 USS Finch, an Edsall class destroyer, was commissioned 13 Dec 1943. From Aug 1943 through Mar 1947 Finch participated in various Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Pacific operations. She was part of group of several ships including CVE 106 USS Block Island, who evacuated POWs from camps on the island of Formosa. She was decommissioned 6 Mar 1947.
In the movie Tora Tora Tora the USS Finch played the part of the USS Ward.
DE 329 Kretchmer (CVE 106)
DE 329 USS Kretchmer, an Edsall-class destroyer escort, was commissioned 13 Dec 1943. She escorted Atlantic convoys during the summer of 1944 through Apr 1945. After victory in Europe, she was assigned Pacific Fleet duty. Clearing Pearl Harbor 1 Aug 1945, Kretchmer was en route to the Philippines when hostilities stopped on 14 Aug.
After arriving she was assigned to a task group that included CVE 106 Block Island and was sent to Formosa. DE 329 along with DE 326 Thomas J. Gary was designated to assist in the liberation of Allied prisoners of war who had been held on that island. Before dawn of 5 Sep off the coast of Formosa, DE 326 and DE 329 were detached from the escort carrier task group. Resistance from die-hard Japanese was still a distinct possibility as they approached the island.
The destroyer escorts picked their way through mines that guarded the approaches to Kiirun. Allied prisoners of war were quickly transferred from the terrible conditions of Japanese POW camps to the waiting destroyer escorts. The destroyers rendezvoused with the CVE 106 and CVE 29 carriers and transferred the newly freed POWs to the larger ships.
Serving in the Far East until 1 April 1946, the destroyer escort engaged in occupation and repatriation operations. Kretchmer was decommissioned 20 Sep 1946. After extensive conversion, DE 329 Kretchmer was recommissioned as DER-329 on 22 Sep 1956.
In the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kretchmer departed Newport 23 Nov 1962 for picket duty off the southern coast of the United States. She operated as plane guard and screen for CV 9 USS Essex .
Kretchmer joined other vessels off the South Vietnam coast in Operation Market Time, keeping coastal traffic under surveillance to prevent the shipment of Communist arms and supply to South Vietnam by sea. By the end of a year of patrol, the ship had investigated some 17,000 contacts, and boarded over 1,000 small craft.
She was decommissioned 1 Oct 1973.
DD 388 Helm (CVE 106)
DD 388 USS Helm, a Bagley class destroyer, was commissioned on 16 Oct 1937. At 0755 hours on the morning of December 7, 1941, DD 388 Helm had just turned into West Loch in Pearl Harbor when Japanese planes attacked the naval base. She was the only ship under way at the time of the attack. DE 388 brought down at least one of the attackers while she was strafed and slightly damaged by two bombs. She remained active in the South Pacific before joining Admiral Turner’s fleet as they struck Guadalcanal and Tulagi. The destroyer screened the transports as troops disembarked, shooting down several attacking aircraft during the first two days.
For the next few weeks Helm remained in the dangerous waters near Guadalcanal, escorting transports and patrolling. She arrived 7 Jun to join the invasion of the Marianas. The great American and Japanese fleets approached each other on 19 Jun for the biggest carrier engagement of the war. As four large air raids hit the American fleet formation, fighter cover from Helm’s task group and surface fire from the ships annihilated the Japanese planes. They succeeded in sinking two Japanese carriers while inflicting such staggering losses on the enemy that the battle was dubbed the “Marianas Turkey Shoot”.
Following the decisive Battle of the Philippine Sea, Helm and the fast carriers turned their attention to neutralizing the enemy bases on the Bonin and Volcano Islands and supporting the invasion of Guam. The mobile carrier groups, screened by destroyers and cruisers, also began attacks on the Palau Islands on 25 Jul 1944. With occasional respite at Eniwetok or Ulithi, the carriers attacked Iwo Jima and other islands in the western Pacific until well into September.
Strikes were launched against Okinawa on 10 Oct after which the carriers turned to their real objective, the airfields and military installations on Formosa. In a devastating 3-day attack carrier planes did much to destroy that island as a supporting base for the Japanese in the battle of the Philippines and other invasions to come. DD 388 Helm brought down one enemy bomber with her 5-inch guns and assisted in shooting down several more.
By 24 Oct it was clear that the assault on Leyte had called forth one final effort on the part of the Japanese to destroy the American fleet. Its three major fleet units moved toward the Philippines. The Northern Group was to lure the American carriers northward away from Leyte, before the others converged on the assault area in Leyte Gulf for a two-pronged death blow. In for the historic Battle of Leyte Gulf, Helm with Rear Admiral Davison’s Task Group 38.4 turned her attention toward Admiral Kurita’s Center Force. Planes from the carriers struck the Japanese ships near mid-day in the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea, sinking giant battleship Musashi and damaging other heavy ships.
Admiral Halsey took the carrier groups north to engage the powerful fleet of Admiral Ozawa. Screened by Helm and other surface units, the carriers made air contact on 25 Oct and, in a series of devastating strikes, sank four Japanese carriers and a destroyer. The great sea battle was thus ended, with the invasion of Leyte secured and the Japanese fleet no longer an effective fighting unit. On 28 Oct Helm and companion destroyer Gridley made a contact around noon with a submarine and dropped depth charges sinking I-46.
Departing Ulithi on 5 Nov 1944, DD 388 Helm steamed from Ulithi for Manus as the ship began preparations for the next important amphibious operation in the Philippine campaign, the landings at Lingayen Gulf on Luzon.
As the ships entered the Sulu Sea, the Japanese struck with suicide planes on 4 Jan 1945 and sank escort carrier Ommaney Bay. Gunfire from Helm and the other screening ships took a heavy toll of the attackers. The carrier groups were hit repeatedly by desperate air attacks, with Helm and the other destroyers accounting for many suicide and torpedo planes. When escort carrier Bismarck Sea was sunk in a massive suicide attack, Helm rescued survivors.
The veteran destroyer continued screening operations off Iwo Jima until she headed for Okinawa to provide close air support. CVE 106 Block Island was escorted by DE 183 Samuel S. Miles and DD 388 Helm to provide for for pre-invasion strikes. During her stay off Okinawa the destroyer shot down many suicide planes which menaced the carriers during fanatical, last-ditch efforts by the Japanese to repel the invasion. DD 388 Helm steamed to Leyte on 19 Jun with Okinawa secured.
Following the Okinawa operation Helm served as an escort and patrol ship out of Ulithi and Leyte and eventually Japan. She earned 11 Battle Stars for her service and was decommissioned on 26 Jun 1946.
DD 463 Corry (CVE 21)
DD 463 USS Corry, a Gleaves-class destroyer, was commissioned 18 Dec 1941. On 16 Feb 1944, Corry sailed for hunter-killer operations in the Atlantic with CVE 21 Block Island’s Task Group 21.16 On 16 Mar joined with Bronstein in attacking German submarine U-801. Corry’s depth charge attack caused the submarine to surface and then DD 463 sank her with gunfire, picking up 47 survivors. On 19 Mar 1944, Corry rescued eight survivors of U-1059, which was sunk southwest of the Cape Verde Islands by aircraft from CVE 21 Block Island.
Corry cleared Norfolk on 20 Apr 1944 for Great Britain, and the staging of the Normandy invasion. Getting underway from Plymouth, England, she was the lead destroyer of the Normandy Invasion task force, escorting ships and transports across the English Channel. Upon arriving off the coast of Normandy, France, she headed for Îles Saint-Marcouf. On D-Day morning 6 Jun 1944 her station was to provide fire support for the front lines at Utah Beach. DD463 fired several hundred rounds of 5-inch ammunition at numerous Nazi targets. As H-Hour, 0630 hours, neared, the plane assigned to lay smoke for Corry to conceal her from enemy fire suddenly got shot down, leaving Corry fully exposed. During a duel with a shore battery, Corry suffered direct heavy-caliber artillery hits in her engineering spaces amidships. Still under heavy fire, DD 463 Corry began sinking rapidly with her keel broken and a foot-wide crack across her main deck amidships. After the order to abandon ship, crew members fought to survive in bone-chilling 54-degree water for more than two hours as they awaited rescue under constant enemy fire. One crew member raised the American flag up Corry’s main mast, which remained above the surface of the shallow 30-foot deep water when the ship settled on the bottom. DD463 survivors were rescued by Fitch, Hobson, Butler, and PT-199. Of her crew, 24 were killed and 60 were wounded.
DE 575 Ahrens (CVE 21)
DE 575 USS Ahrens, a Buckley-class destroyer escort, was commissioned on 12 Feb 1944. Following shakedown training in Bermuda and Maine, she joined Task Group 21.11 a hunter/killer group — built around the escort carrier CVE-21 USS Block Island on 22 Feb 1944 at Norfolk, VA. On 29 May, German submarine U-549 torpedoed and sank Block Island and severely damaged DE 576 Barr. Ahrens rescued 673 officers and men in a period of 40 minutes. While carrying out rescue operations, the ship assisted the destroyer escort DE-686 Eugene E. Elmore in locating the submarine. Eugene E. Elmore made two hedgehog attacks which sank U-549.
On 23 Jul, Ahrens assumed duty as an escort for transatlantic convoys. On 13 Oct 1944 after a merchant ship collided with a gasoline tanker, starting large fires on both ships, Ahrens rescued survivors and then assisted DE 703 Holton in putting out the fires.
On 15 Dec 1944, Ahrens sailed with TG 27.7 to join the 7th Fleet in the Pacific. She sailed to Leyte, Philippines, arriving there on 9 Feb and was attached to TG 75.2 . Ahrens escorted merchant and naval convoys until 25 Aug 1945. In late Aug 1945, Ahrens was detached from the Philippine Sea duties and began supporting occupation forces operating in China and Korea.
An interesting note on the Ahrens history is that Edward E. Lull replaced H. Mullins, Jr. as Commander Escort Division Sixty. Ahrens was the Flagship of Division 60. Commander Mullins had been aboard CVE 21 Block Island and actually brought his Flag aboard the Ahrens when he was fished out of the water with the other Block Island survivors on 29 May 1944. This action indicates that an officer that was rescued from that sinking actually later became the Commander of the very ship that saved his life. Ahrens was decommissioned on 24 Jun 1946, and her name was struck from the Navy List on 1 April 1965.
DE 576 Barr (CVE 21)
/>DE 576 USS Barr was commissioned on 16 Feb 1944. Following shakedown and additional training off Bermuda and Maine, the Barr reported to Norfolk for antisubmarine duty in the Atlantic off the Cape Verde Islands. She operated as part of a hunter-killer task group built around CVE 21 USS Block Island and composed of DE 575 USS Ahrens, DE 686 USS Eugene E. Elmore, and DE 51 USS Buckley. The group left Norfolk 29 Apr 1944 and conducted submarine searches for the next several weeks. On 6 May, Buckley rammed and sank an enemy submarine U-66, verifying that the waters of the South Atlantic did hide enemy submarines.
On 29 May, while closing in on a reported submarine, Block Island suffered two torpedo hits. Barr pursued the submarine, later identified as U-549, until around 2030 hours when a third torpedo struck the Barr. The explosion wrecked the ship aft of the No. 2 engine room, killing four of her crew, injuring 14, and leaving 12 missing. Throughout the night, Barr stayed dead in the water while DE 578 Robert I. Paine patrolled around her. DE 686 Eugene E. Elmore took Barr’s injured and about half of her crew on board, hooked up a towline to the damaged escort and began the journey to Casablanca. DE 397 Wilhoite relieved Eugene E. Elmore and the Dutch tug, Antic took over and finally towed Barr into port six days later.
Barr stayed in drydock at Casablanca until 2 Jul while the wreckage of her damaged stern was burned off, spaces cleared of oil and debris, and stern plates welded on for the trip home. On 3 Jul, ATF 66 Cherokee began the long voyage to Boston with Barr in tow arriving on 25 Jul.
The Barr spent the next three months in drydock being refurbished and converted to a high speed transport. Redesignated APD 39, Barr sailed for Norfolk on 3 Nov for boat training, and departed that port on the 15 Nov as escort for AGC 14 Teton. She sailed westward and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 9 Dec.
On 10 Jan 1945, Barr set sail for Ulithi, the main staging area for the invasion of Iwo Jima. Barr arrived off the southern end of the island on 16 Feb and she embarked her underwater demolition team, successfully completed the first mission by placing a navigational light on the hazardous Higashi Rocks despite coming under heavy enemy fire. Barr, however, solved the problem, silencing that gunfire with some of her own.
On 18 Feb, Barr received orders to land her UDT on the Higashi Rocks again to reposition the light before retiring for the night. As she and APD-48 Blessman pulled away from the island, a Japanese bomber flew over Barr, crashed Blessman, and caused many casualties. On D day, 19 Feb, Barr and her UDT frogmen, assisted in guiding marines to the landing beaches.
On the 21st, she stood out of Ulithi as part of the Gun Fire and Covering Force under Rear Admiral Morton L. Deyo. The warships arrived off Okinawa on 25 Mar and during the next four days, Barr put UDT 13 ashore on Keise Shima, a group of small sand and coral islands between Kerama Retto and Okinawa, to gather information and blast passages through the reef for the LST’s.
The Japanese maintained an almost constant aerial onslaught in the early days of the invasion. Barr did not close Okinawa on D day, 1 April, but remained in the transport area as a part of the antisubmarine screen. She transferred UDT 13 to APA 54 Wayne 7 Apr and continued screening until 9 April.
Barr got underway again on 23 Apr to escort a convoy of LSTs and LSMs back to Okinawa. Along with hundreds of other Allied ships, including the new CVE 106 Block Island she operated off Okinawa during May 1945. She provided anti-aircraft and anti-submarine defense until 27 May, when she headed for Saipan as a convoy escort. The fast transport resumed screening duties at Okinawa after her return late in June.
After Japan capitulated on 15 Aug, Barr rendezvoused with HMS King George V and HMS Gambia east of Tokyo, embarked Royal Marines from the two British warships and landed them at Yokosuka. After this mission, she proceeded to the north end of the bay to evacuate 1,135 Allied prisoners of war from central Honshu. On 12 Oct, she was ordered to Nagasaki for duty with the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey. She served there as a base of operations and as a barracks ship until 1 Dec when she began the voyage to the United States.
She was placed out of commission and in reserve on 12 Jul 1946. Barr remained in the Atlantic Reserve Fleet until 1 Jun 1960 when she was struck from the Navy list. Barr received three battle stars for her World War II service..
DE 578 USS Robert I. Paine
DE 578 USS Robert I. Paine, a Buckley-class destroyer escort, was commissioned on 26 Feb 1944. Robert I. Paine completed shakedown and training in Apr 1944. She departed Brooklyn the same day to screen the carriers CV 4 Ranger and CVE 11 Card as they transported Army aircraft and Allied personnel to Casablanca.
Detached on the 10 May 1944, she joined a hunter-killer group centered on the escort carrier CVE 21 Block Island. On the 29th, CVE 21 Block Island was sunk and DE 576 Barr was struck in the stern of torpedoes from U-549. The remaining escorts commenced rescue and search operations, with Robert I. Paine taking on 279 survivors from CVE 21, then moving in to cover the crippled DE. On 4 Jun, Robert I. Paine steamed for Gibraltar, and rendezvoused with GUF-11.
In February 1945, she shifted to escort work off the southern New England coast and in early March she headed east to join the 12th Fleet for patrol work under the Royal Navy’s Western Approaches Command. For the remainder of the European War Robert I. Paine guarded convoys on the first or last section of the transatlantic convoy lanes. She was decommissioned on 21 Nov 1945 and struck from the Navy List on 1 Jun 1968.
DD 666 Black (CVE 21)
DD 666 USS Black, a Fletcher-class destroyer, was commissioned 21 May 1943. After several east coast shakedown cruises she sailed for Norfolk, VA for refresher training. On 10 Oct 1943 she collided with the escort carrier CVE 21 USS Block Island and was forced to enter the Navy Yard for repairs. Black proceeded to the Pacific where she was assigned screening duty off Tarawa. She saw her first combat during the invasion of the Marshall Islands, followed by New Guinea, Saipan, and Guam. DD 666 saw action at Leyte and Ulithi where Black participated in the Okinawa operation. She served in the Far Fast on occupation duty until 10 Nov 1945. DD 666 Black was placed out of commission in on 5 Aug 1946.
DD 666 Black was recommissioned on 18 Jul 1951 and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. DD 666 departed Norfolk, Va. for Korea where she continued operations until 4 Jun 1953. Black continued to serve the U.S. Navy until Sep 1969 when she was decommissioned. Black received six battle stars for her World War II service and two battle stars for service off Korea.
DE 686 Eugene E. Elmore (CVE 21)
DE 686 USS Eugene E. Elmore, a Rudderow-class destroyer escort, was commissioned 4 Feb 1944. On 22 Apr 1944 at Norfolk, VA, Eugene E. Elmore joined the antisubmarine group formed around CVE 21 USS Block Island, and sailed for Casablanca to provide cover for convoys moving across the mid-Atlantic. During the return passage, on 29 May 1944, Block Island was torpedoed, as was the escort DE 576 USS Barr. DE 575 USS Ahrens began rescuing Block Island survivors when she made a submarine contact and directed Eugene E. Elmore to the target, German submarine U-549. DE 686 Eugene E. Elmore sank the German submarine and then stood by DE 576 Barr throughout the night. The DE 686 took off her wounded and many of her crew members. She took Barr in tow for Casablanca, and was relieved of her tow one day before reaching port 2 Jun 1944.
Eugene E. Elmore returned to New York City 13 Jun 1944, and during the next 4½ months made two voyages escorting convoys to the Mediterranean Sea. On 3 Nov 1944 she got underway from New York for the South Pacific, arriving at Hollandia 11 Dec to join the 7th Fleet. She joined the escort of a convoy bound with reinforcements and supplies for newly invaded Lingayen Gulf. After arriving on 12 Jan 1945, she joined the ships providing antiaircraft fire to protect the assault shipping for 2 days, then sailed to San Pedro Bay to prepare for the landings at Subic Bay 29 Jan 1945.
DE 686 continued to operate out of San Pedro Bay, supporting the continuing battles of the Philippines by escorting convoys from Biak, the Palaus, Ulithi, and New Guinea. Between 13 Jul 1945 and 22 Aug 1945, she twice escorted convoys from the Philippines to Okinawa, and on 3 Sep arrived off Okinawa once more for occupation duty. In Oct 1945 she escorted transports carrying men to Jinsen, Korea, and on 15 Oct, sailed from Okinawa for San Diego, arriving 5 Nov. There she was decommissioned and placed in reserve 31 May 1946. DE 686 USS Eugene E. Elmore received four battle stars for World War II service.
DD 748 Harry E. Hubbard (CVE 106)
DD 748 USS Harry E. Hubbard, a Sumner-class destroyer, was commissioned on 22 Jul 1944. On 17 Apr 1945 DD 748 Harry E. Hubbard sailed from Hawaii for Ulithi in the Carolinas with CVE 106 USS Block Island. She arrived off Okinawa on 8 May 1945 to serve as a picket destroyer. For nearly two months Hubbard fought off the Japanese planes, shooting down four suicide kamikazes planes. Hubbard remained off Okinawa until 24 Jul 1945 then escorted occupation troops to Jinsen, Korea, and carried the Commander of Destroyer Squadron 64 (DesRon 64) to Chinkai, Korea, to oversee the demilitarization of the former Japanese naval base there. She was decommissioned on 15 Jan 1947.
Following the invasion of South Korea, Harry E. Hubbard was recommissioned on 27 Oct 1950. Besides helping guard the fast carrier task force making repeated airstrikes against the enemy, she frequently joined in gunstrike missions to bombard coastal rail and communication centers and performed as sea-going artillery to support the advance of land troops. Between 1954 and 1966 Harry E. Hubbard served on nine Far East tours with the 7th Fleet. During the Gulf of Tonkin Incident of August 1964, Harry E. Hubbard was nearby in the South China Sea screening Ticonderoga. The carrier task group struck to destroy North Vietnamese torpedo boats and their supporting facilities. In Oct 1965, she departed for the coast of South Vietnam in company with Valley Forge to provided gunfire support for two Marine amphibious landings. In the following months, she acted as escort to Kitty Hawk and Hancock during their strike operations in the South China Sea.
She was decommissioned Oct 1969.
CDR Roy L. Swift with Robert J Cressman(1986, Winter). The Tale of Two Block Islands., The Hook, 22-39
Dictionary of American Fighting Ships, www.history.navy.mil/danfs/index.html
Naval Historical Foundation Photographic Service. Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC.
Wilhoite DE-397 - History
Thomas Mack Wilhoite was born on February 12, 1921 in Guthrie, KY.
He enlisted in the Naval Reserve on June 16, 1941 in Atlanta, GA and received his aviation indoctrination training at the Naval Reserve Air Base in Atlanta.
On August 7, 1941 he reported for flight instruction at the Naval Air Station (NAS) in Pensacola, FL, and was appointed an aviation cadet the following day. Transferred to NAS in Miami, FL, on January 15, 1942 for further training, he became a Naval aviator on February 6, 1942. Three days later he was commissioned an Ensign and at the end of February had reported to the Advanced Carrier Training Group, Atlantic Fleet, NAS in Norfolk, VA. There he joined Fighting Squadron (VF) 9, then preparing to go to war. He became the Assistant Navigation Officer for that squadron.
Operation Torch–the World War II invasion of French North Africa–saw VF-9 assigned to the aircraft carrier USS RANGER (CV-4). It was that aircraft carrier that provided air superiority during the amphibious invasion of German-dominated French Morocco (commencing early November 8, 1942). It was still dark at 6:15 a.m. that day when RANGER, stationed 30 miles northwest of Casablanca, began launching her aircraft to support the landings made at three points on the Atlantic coast of North Africa. Each section of the squadron had drawn assigned tasks on that morning, the first day of the amphibious landings. Wilhoite flew one of five Grumman F4F-4 Wildcats which attacked the French airdrome at Rabat-Sale, the headquarters of the French air forces in Morocco. Despite heavy anti-aircraft fire, Wilhoite pressed home a determined attack and set three French bombers afire with his guns.
In a second strike directed at the Port Lyautey (now Kenitra) airdrome later that day, Wilhoite flew his Wildcat, Bureau Number (BuNo) 02023, as part of the RANGER’s third flight. He destroyed one fighter–a Dewoitine 520–by strafing. However, the Vichy ground gunners served their weapons well and Wilhoite’s Wildcat took hits from the intense flak and crashed about one mile from Port Lyautey. After all was said and done, the RANGER’s aircraft destroyed more than 70 enemy planes on the ground and shot down 15 in aerial combat, immobilized 21 light enemy tanks and destroyed 86 military vehicles. Casablanca surrendered to the Americans on November 11, 1942.
Thomas Mack Wilhoite received a Silver Star posthumously, for displaying “conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity” during the strikes at Rabat-Sale and Port Lyautey. The citation also cited Wilhoite’s “superb airmanship and tenacious devotion to duty” in pressing home his strafing attacks.
The Entire Graduating Class of 1956!
From Left to Right, Becky (Hornsby) Snow, Pat (La Fleur) Jones, and Larry O. Miller
Remembrances from Becky (Hornsby) Snow:
I’m the third graduating senior,1956, from TMW High School. Larry, Pat and I got together for a senior reunion several years ago for dinner at the Hungry Hunter in Thousand Oaks. We are all three living in Southern California. Pat and I went to a TMW/Kenitra reunion a couple of years ago in San Diego. It was fun seeing those who came after us.
The times in Morocco were enjoyable and basically carefree. I stayed a few months after graduation until my Dad was transferred. I worked in the office at the Navy Exchange and my hobbies were riding the Arabian Stallions at the stables, going to different functions on the base, and trying to stay out of trouble! I gained a hearty respect for dueling animals, and still have a hard time relating to docile horses after the experiences of the spirited horses in Port Lyautey. My career was real estate and I still maintain my licenses.
Becky (Hornsby) Snow
Remembrances from Pat La Fleur Jones:
That picture brings back memories and I’m still into the 50’s music. My dress was pink and I ordered it out of a catalog. Don’t wear glasses much anymore since contacts came in.
We got to Morocco in 1954 just as I was going into the 11th grade. At that time there was one senior and several juniors. We had correspondence courses from the University of Nebraska and all sat in one big room. Our teacher or “monitor” was Mrs. Duborg, the base captain’s wife.
In my senior year we had another school with real live teachers. Our English teacher, Mrs. Ryan was a Shakespeare lover and she celebrated his birthday. In those days we diagrammed sentences. Sure was a good way to learn sentences. By that time there were about 7 juniors. Chemistry class was read and memorize. No lab. Our principle was Mr. Humperdink. These were civil service teachers.
Both Becky and Larry lived in outlying areas so only saw them at school. In 1954 we lived in town and then moved on the base – in back of the Marine Corps barracks – in a Quonset hut. Very convenient because I dated Marines. Spent many evenings watching my date spit shine his shoes. The base movie was about all there was to do on the base but spent a lot of time at the Red Cross Center in town. I was allowed to drive our car so had transportation for the “gang.”
The first year we were there, I was chosen Navy Relief Queen. Every time someone bought a ticket for a new car, they got to vote for a Queen. The winner of the car didn’t even give me a ride….
My Dad was the terminal officer so I also spent time at the terminal and “Greasy Spoon” as they called the snack bar.
On Saturday, some of the girls took turns putting on a radio show called “Teen Timers,” which was on Armed Forces Radio. We had scripts and selected our own songs to be played.
Our graduation was at the Seabee auditorium. All three of us sat on the stage while the glee club sang. Graduation was June 5, 1956.
We left Morocco in August 1956 and I went to Florida State University. My Dad was stationed in Pensacola at the time.
To this day, I keep in contact with Becky (Hornsby) Snow, Leila (Griffin) Applewhite, Sue (Greksouk) Kerry, Larry Miller and some of the wonderful people I met at the reunion last year in Imperial Beach, CA. Let’s have another reunion before we all get too old to travel.
Enjoyed remembering the “good old days.”
Pat La Fleur Jones
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Letter to My Daughter
I want to share a story with you. It is a little success story of mine. I hope it makes you proud.
If you look at the below copy of my diploma from Ohio University, you will see that it is dated in the year 1979. I graduated from high school in 1969. If I had completed college on time, I would have graduated from University in 1973. However, in the manner of some hippies back during those wild and wonderful and rebellious times, I left college one course shy of graduation.
I always wanted to go back and finish up, however. I didn't want my Dad's hard-earned money to have been spent for naught. And I knew that in the long run, having a degree would open up better job opportunities for me.
I fell victim to the cult in 1977, the year you were born.
I have done some studying up on closed systems such as cults, which is an apt term for the Hawaii commune.
Closed systems are characterized by the following (this not being a complete list):
1. Cutting off input from the outside world (such as newspapers, TV, etc.)
2. Severing and demonizing life's most important relationships (parents, children)
3. Severely punishing a recalcitrant member, often employing a double bind. In my case, it was having to bow down (and more) to the "guru" or I would never hold, cuddle, love, and adore firsthand my gorgeous and wondrous newborn infant again (except while under the supervision of a warden).
4. Inflicting further unbearable punishment by forcing such unwilling member to listen to the "guru's" "in-your-face" hideously loud sexual "ecstasy" hour after hour, day after day, while she lies bleeding to death from a mother's broken heart.
5. Using other styles of the double bind, such as commanding a mother who is holding her newborn infant to walk across a steep mountainside of sharp and jagged lava rock while wearing thin rubber zoris (flip-flops), at great risk of tripping, falling, dropping the infant, and causing permanent harm to the child, for the overt reason that the mother might miss a gem of wisdom as the "guru" spews forth during a coffee-tree farming break.
6. Leaving the mother helpless to stop a "believer" who mindlessly follows the "guru's" orders and snatches the child from the mother's arms, himself carrying her over that same treacherous terrain with the same risks to the infant's soft head.
7. Pulling out another one from the double bind bag of tricks by forbidding the mother to gather up and thoroughly check her newborn infant who has fallen off a kitchen table, all the while that gawking believers stand around wringing their hands, unable and afraid themselves to pick up the fallen child, recalling the "guru's" unbending rule that you never pick up a crying child, not even to check for concussions.
8. Using yet another double bind tool, forcing the mother to listen to her child screaming with night terrors for months on end while forbidding the mother to go and comfort her infant daughter.
9. Severing the mother-child relationship to such an extent that she only learns second-hand that her now-toddler child had nearly drowned to death while being ignored by that day's assigned proctor and that she couldn't have done anything about it anyway because she has been denied access to her own child for some years now.
10. Maintaining the severance of the mother-child bond for such a duration that the mother has missed the first 6 glorious years of her own daughter's childhood, those years which could have meant true enlightenment and ecstasy for the mother, those years which were robbed from her forever.
11. Employing enormous group pressure to reinforce a "new" way of looking at the world, the group's way, which is really just a means of infantalization and complete disempowerment of the members.
12. Convincing a member through means of fear that she cannot possibly make it on her own in the outside world the group is extremely threatened when a member leaves - it makes them question the wisdom of their own decision to stay.
13. Rewarding conformity while punishing independent thoughts and ideas.
14. Creating a complete and horrific dependency of the members on the group such that even the most basic and simple decisions cannot be made without the "help" of the group - sexual partners are decided upon, diet rules are mandated (including tofu manufactured from soy beans in the filthy home kitchen), etc.
15. Using rotation of sex partners so that no two members become too close after all, in the final analysis, all eyes are ultimately to gaze upon the great "guru."
16. Encouraging members to commit acts that are contrary to what human beings know to be right and civilized in extreme cases, members may have violated taboos to such an extent that their very sense of personhood, of humanity, is compromised.
17. Showing contempt and disdain for the outside world, the "others" (all God's children, one's fellow human beings) who are not privy to the group's esoteric wisdom the group considers themselves to be "Gnostics."
18. Employing a code language to further the separation from the world upon which the group looks down with disdain and contempt.
19. Living in a remote area such as the jungle of the Big Island of Hawaii where it is difficult for a member to gain employment that might make her financially independent enough to leave and support her child on her own. Bear in mind that in the natural world, a lone mother and her infant are easy prey. Generally speaking, a mother is unwise to leave the safety of whatever support group she may have. (One day in November 1978, the Rev. Jim Jones, who had taken his 908 disciples to the remote jungles of Guyana (this "Peoples Temple" was a cult very much like our own), ordered his people to drink cyanide-laced Kool Aid. There were no survivors. Of course, I did not know about this until after I escaped from the commune. I had not been following the news.)
20. Confusing and frightening this mother's own dear father, who had stopped for a visit on his way back from the Philippines where he was successfully bringing a Boise Cascade paper mill operation on the island of Bataan back into the "black." This father of mine - your grandfather - did not even know he had a granddaughter. When he learned of it on his visit, he purchased mountains of Similac and diapers for his newly discovered granddaughter, all the while that he was heartbroken about the situation in which he saw his daughters (me and your aunt Becky). His purchase was his way of helping out, of trying to show his love in the midst of his confusion and fear for his loved ones. Yet the commune threw those baby goods into the trash with a harrumph of disgust. Nothing from a grandfather would be accepted. That is a "dependent" relationship. Your mother was charged for baby food and diapers. Those gifts from your granddad would have helped out greatly. But they were so cavalierly trashed just for the "principle" of it. In fact, your mother never made a single independent purchase of baby goods for her daughter, even though she was charged for what others had bought.
21. Constantly reinforcing the group's way of thinking by requiring attendance in mind-numbing "therapy" groups and chanting/meditation sessions from dinner time until bedtime during the week and all day and night on the weekends.
22. Further entrapping and disorienting members by use of mind-altering drugs.
My daughter, my love, I fought like a tiger to be with you. And against all obstacles, I was watching like a mother hawk, from a distance but ready to swoop if fatal danger edged too close. And we are out of that situation now. We are winners now.
You survived because you were not undergoing the pain I have described above, which is a mother's pain.
I wish to give you some advice. Sometimes wisdom born of painful experience is the most valuable gift a parent can give a child. Never, NEVER allow yourself to become disempowered. Stay true and steadfast to your principles and your selfhood.
Use your love for that great big, beautiful Jamie (I always longed for you to marry a real live, big, strong, handsome heartbreaker of a quarterback (my kind of guy!) ever so much more useful to your Mom than having a lawyer, doctor, or union plumber in the family!) to go forth in the world and do good unto yourselves and others.
You are such beautiful people, my beautiful daughter. The two of you have so much to give. You are so powerful and new and untouched, you children of mine. Your youth and freshness are so beautiful to me. Spread your love and be newly baptized.
The move to San Francisco, with its job opportunities, finally allowed me to effect my own - and your - escape. I believe that I got you out of there in the nick of time. Maybe you don't know how little girls were viewed by the group and by the "guru" in particular. He liked them really young. I do know this. And I was NOT going to let you become the next victim, even if it had required bringing in the police or exposing the child abuse that was going on daily in that godforsaken place and which didn't raise any more of an eyebrow than the ringing of the dinner bell.
In retrospect, most of the members of the commune were not bad people. On the whole, they were a relatively well educated group - university professors, computer programmers, etc.
They were terribly misguided, however, and had fallen sway to a very bad man and his methods. They gave awy their selfhood. It is a tragedy because most of them spent many more years than I did in this atrocious situation.
If only they had come across the following wisdom before they handed their very minds and souls over to someone else. Everyone longs for spirituality, self-knowledge and maybe even a glimpse of enlightenment. However, please don't ever think you can achieve it the cheap way, from a snake-oil salesman or worse. Let your heart and your ever-so-brilliant mind be your guide.
"He who would gather immortal palms must not be hindered by the name of goodness, but must explore if it be goodness. Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind."
Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Self-Reliance"
People tell me, "Others have gotten past it. Why can't you?"
I would answer you thusly:
With several exceptions, no one else was in my position of having their infant child ripped from their arms and their very heart. They did not even remotely suffer my level of pain. In fact, their preoccupations in the commune were selfish - their own "enlightenment," their own satisfaction of their own needs, and particularly the endless opportunities for promiscuous sex, no matter how they may have kidded themselves otherwise.
They had not been entrusted by God to protect and raise a newly born soul, an infant daughter. This child - you - was of only tangential concern to them.
Look at the means these people chose to further their own "therapy." I would ask you this question: Who in their right mind could believe that they would achieve any level enlightenment by following the ideas of an insane, egomaniacal pedophile with his disdain for women, contempt for and competitiveness with men, his scorn for his fellow man, and a tenacious belief in his own mind fuck.
I do believe that there were certain "ringleaders," the "inner circle" who were Chuck's bootlickers and thugs, who to this day fan the eternal conflagration of the now-dead guru's hole in the ground, and who to this day maintain little shrines, if only in their minds. I greatly fear for their children or anyone who might look up to them for advice.
I feel that these lackeys were instrumental in carrying out the "guru's" need to amass ever more power by severing our relationship - to ensure that we would not be together. The love that I had for you was a threat to the required hypnotic fixation on the "guru."
When people say "Others have gone on with their lives. Why can't you?"
I liken these members of the "inner sanctum" to someone who has committed an atrocious act upon another person. Perhaps they gouged out a person's heart. But they have done a little thinking about it, they've gotten it out of their systems, they've been able to forget it all, and they have "gone on with their lives." Good for them. Have a nice life. But these individuals had better not look back at the mother they left bleeding to death of a broken heart. I think their only defense might be of the Nuremburg variety. It will take me lifetimes to overcome the pain I suffered with the loss of you, my gorgeous baby.
I am having a very difficult time putting my life back together, recovering my self-esteem. But of this one fact I am proud: that I never ONCE succumbed in the commune to enormous pressure to follow the filth that this evil man was teaching.
And the good news is that I am intact. In fact, I want to brag to you about something. And I hope it will make you proud.
Back to the first few paragraphs of this letter.
I decided I wanted to take the last course required to get my journalism degree - The History of Journalism. I decided to take the course by correspondence. There really was no actual correspondence involved. I would merely study the textbook and then take the exam proctored by a local school teacher.
I bought the textbook. (Sadly, I must have since lost it during my travels through life. There were some great stories in there. I particularly loved the "Yellow Journalism" wars and the stories of Horace Greeley.)
Against all odds - remember that group attendance was required, gotta keep a firm grip on the sheep - I studied that textbook. I flat out refused to go to those groups. I stuck my face right up in the "guru's" mug and just said "No."
I studied and studied, curled up in the coffee shack day and night with my textbook, because I wanted to get this thing over with. I've always dreaded exams.
I took the test in a school room under the supervision of a local teacher (can't remember which school, somewhere there on the Kona Coast). Then I waited for my results. Don't ya just hate that?
I must have studied pretty well. I received the results from the Ohio University professor who subsequently graded my exam. I am attaching the professor's grade report but JUST IN CASE YOU CAN'T READ IT, here's what it says:
° 16 out of 16 correct answers to the objective questions
° 8 out of 8 correct answers to the essay questions
° Examination grade: A+
° Basic weaknesses on the exam: None!
° Professor's comments, and I quote:
"Phenomenal! Best paper I've read in many years of teaching this course - on or off campus."[boastful typographical emphasis mine!]
Cutie Pie, Baby Of Mine, it's all there for you to read. The green report card has been folded and unfolded many, many times. You can verify the age of the paper because it's starting to crumble to dust.
A copy of my diploma from Ohio University College of Communications, School of Journalism, dated March 17, 1979, is attached, and what you are now holding in your beautiful, slender, artistic and capable hands that will spread comfort and love in the world is your Mama's BS!
I am seeing a wonderful new therapist. I don't want to go on and on in my life thinking the same thoughts. However, I deemed it therapeutic to commit these thoughts to paper because sometimes these memories just bob around in my head like some free-floating, inchoate anxiety and end up knocking me all over the map. Hopefully this is my last narrative on this topic, at least the last one that I will share.
We've done well, my gorgeous daughter, you and I. And we've only just begun.
o Lord of the Flies (on herd mentality gone horribly awry)
o Any books regarding Hitler's hypnotic hold over the German people
o Ralph Waldo Emerson's Essays on Self-Reliance
o Tortilla Flat (or Steinbeck's other two books from his trilogy on the characters of Cannery Row and Monterey Bay) - because, my most brilliant daughter, we - me and my baby - you and I - know that every picture tells a story (Attrib: Rod Stewart)
o Sophie's Choice (on double binds)
o The Color Purple (on mothers' heartbreak at having their children ripped from their arms)
My daughter - you've got a true American hero for a Grandpa.
Please visit the below link for a REAL shrine to a REAL man with REAL principles.
Dad ended up as commanding officer of the mighty destroyer escort/sub killer USS Wilhoite-DE397.
As all kids do, I used to ferret through my Mom's and Dad's old photos. I always loved a particular one of Dad, so handsome in his naval uniform. It was a group photo of about twelve young Naval warriors who had just graduated from the Cornell University School of Diesel Engineering. Universities converted quickly to train the youth of that day to go forth and fight for their country. I created a little page on my web site in honor of your Grandpa.
Men of your Grandpa's era are so proud of their service in WWII. It doesn't take but a mere mention of the subject to get them telling long, long tales about their part in the war effort (so be careful about bringing it up in the first place!). The enemy was so easy to identify back then. Not like today. Back then, it was clear who the enemy was. Our country had been attacked. The freedom of Europe was at stake. And for the first time, danger had reached the very shores of the United States. All of our parents rallied, even those who didn't go "Over There."
For a fabulous read on Naval history (which I am sure you will immediately enter on your list as "to read next" - my daughter, you are SO FUNNY!), read the book "Dreadnought," by an author named William Manchester (is he the one? Massie? One of those great historians.) Anyway, just do a search on Amazon.com for "Dreadnought." Naval history in the context of world history - or vice versa - is truly fascinating. Although the central thread of "Dreadnought" is the arms race - and particularly the building of the all-big-gun warships known as Dreadnoughts - between Britain and Germany leading up to World War I, this book is really a grand history about the pre-Victorian era through the beginning of the war.
By the way, Dad keeps telling me over and over that the moniker "Dreadnought" - referring to the first all-big-gun warships developed by Britain in an arms race with Germany as World War I approached - is an obsolete name. You don't (translated, "I am not to") keep calling today's warships, the ones with the steel-enforced bottoms all the way up the side, by the name "Dreadnought." There is another name. I forget what Dad called them. Sometimes even I don't pay attention! (Or even listen!)) (By the way, this weekend when I'm down in Portland, I might wander on over to the navy base to take a gander at the Dread . . . 'er, the big warships that recently sailed in.)
In 1967, Becky and I participated in a 9-country summer-long odyssey through Europe called the "Teen Overseas Project." It was not a luxury trip. We 30 travelers stayed in youth hostels, some quite spare. (The serving bowl only went around the dinner table once so you had to fork your meat fast.) One of these hostels was an underground World War I barracks outside of Paris. Another was a converted grain mill somewhere in rural England. Your aunt and I bathed in the bottom pool of the water wheel that spun around and around. (God, it's depressing to look at those old photos. I was so skinny then! Yes, 'Hon, me!)
It is amazing when I think of it now, but World War II had ended only 22 years previous to our trip. In many of the cities we visited, there was still evidence of the utter destruction of the war. Scaffolding was still up. Europe's beautiful buildings were still undergoing reconstruction. True to form, your Mama fell in love with a fellow traveler. I smile to think of our last night before coming home to the good old U S of A. Our youth hostel on the last night of this dream trip was a rundown hotel in Paris, near enough to the Montmartre that Jeff and I could see the Sacre Coeur from the roof of this shabby inn. We had chilled a bottle of wine in the sink in our room. We had great fun that night, Jeff and I, the innocent play of two youngsters.
Anyway, your Grandpa's ship was heroic in both the Atlantic and the Pacific theaters. Dad told me that it was early in January 1945 that his ship was ordered home. For the past several months, the USS Wilhoite-DE 397 had been part of a group of other ships who were acting as beacons for bombers flying American soldiers home. (I have a copy of Dad's CO report, a short history of the Wilhoite's action during the war, which he had written for the Fleet Home Town News Center. Let me know if you'd like to read it.)
The world is a wondrous great place, honey.. Just choose your destinations wisely and you'll have the time of your life.
Sadly, you may have trouble viewing my web page. I have an awesome Dell system with a high resolution monitor. On lesser systems you have to scroll around a bit to view the page. Note that this page may take a minute or so to download because it has an audio file of the U.S. Naval Chorus singing "Anchors Aweigh." I hope you can hear the sound and that the slide show works for you. Be patient. Your efforts will be rewarded.
Postscript regarding my website tribute to your Grandpa's destroyer escort/sub killer, the mighty USS Wilhoite DE-397 (this is how we four kids of Dad's learned to refer to his boat).
Subject: deep waters sure do run really, really deep (and so do some "other things")
I felt so proud when I had completed and launched onto the World Wide Web my tribute to your Grandpa's ship that I called him and told him all about it. But after I excitedly recounted my proud tale, I was YET AGAIN in deep water (among "other things"). I have often ended up there. I don't know why. I really don't.
I had eagerly told Dad about the wonderful stories of his that I had included on his site.
"Dad," I said, "I put on there about how you anchored the Wilhoite off Iwo Jima on New Years Eve, 1944. And also the really funny story about how you and your shipmates all went ashore for a little celebration."
And that's when the shit hit the fantail.
Dad said, "Are you crazy? Get that off the Internet!"
I said, "But Dad, you told me . . ."
Well, I did remember Dad telling me about his ship wandering around Iwo Jima, but now that I think of it, I don't actually remember him saying anything about "anchoring off." And while I'm reflecting on it, I admit that I can't imagine in my wildest fantasies an anchor chain 16 million miles long, which is about what would have been required to "anchor off" of Iwo Jima, since it is located in the middle of the deepest ocean waters known to man. Dad told me that he sure as hell hoped none of his shipmates ever visited my web site. I guess there's a little bit of a difference between "anchoring off" and "cruising the waters."
"But Dad, how about your great story about celebrating on Iwo Jima while nobody was minding the ship? That was a great story, Dad!" (In this story, I had always pictured Dad splashing around in the water, chasing after some Oriental beauty after having chugged a few cold ones (he didn't marry your Gramma until after the war).)
At this point in my phone call with Dad, I actually had a brand new revelation about him: There are some things that even Dad fears! I now suspect he was worried that even 60 years later, the United States Navy might be a little "miffed" about this story regarding a bazillion-gazillion dollar military asset. Anyway, the truth is that they actually had left a young tender to look after the boat (Ok, Dad, a whole bunch of sailors. And to be on the safe side, I'll even say that you took your cell phone to shore.) - and especially to watch for incoming radio transmissions - while they went off to have a little party.
Anyway, I'm not going commit to paper or send through the United States mail or fax, email or otherwise "transmit" Dad's actual words about my web site tribute to his boat, about which I had now become sort of sad.
Suffice it to say, honey, there are some good lessons to be learned here. Don't assume that you are entitled to endless poetic license, and never let your mind wander off while you are pretending to listen to someone, or you'll maybe not even live to regret it!
Your always accurate and attentive Mama
Honey: one last thing before I fall into bed.
Your Grandpa doesn't know the FIRST DAMNED THING about how to work his own computer. I ask you - what has happened to our country that we are turning out such Grandpas?
For his benefit (and I sigh in resignation as I say this), I am going to use my small computer expertise to snag my web site tribute to his ship (which has been thoroughly swept for bugs) off the danged site and burn it onto a DVD and send it to him so he can just pop it into his DVD player and watch the danged thing.
After Your Visit
Your physical therapist will communicate the important information from your examination to your physician or surgeon.
Follow your personalized Home Exercise Program (HEP) that you receive at the end of your first visit. Most often, you will be instructed to perform your HEP twice a day on days you do not attend physical therapy and once a day on days you do attend physical therapy. Ask your physical therapist or physical therapy assistant if you have questions about your HEP.
Your physical therapist will continually recheck your progress and work with you to plan for your discharge from physical therapy, when you are ready. Make sure you talk with your physical therapist about what you should do after discharge if you have questions, or if your symptoms or condition worsen.