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Yavuz Sultan Selim in sea of Marmora, 1919-20

Yavuz Sultan Selim in sea of Marmora, 1919-20

Yavuz Sultan Selim in sea of Marmora, 1919-20

Here we see the Yavuz Sultan Selim (the former Moltke class battlecruiser SMS Goeben) in the Sea of Marmora in 1919-20, after her wartime damage had been repaired. This view shows the height difference between her bow and stern, probably introduced in an attempt to cope with the height difference between the superfiring aft turrets.


Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge

The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Turkish: Yavuz Sultan Selim Köprüsü ), initially named the Third Bosphorus Bridge, is a project to construct a bridge for rail and motor vehicle transit over the Bosphorus, north of two existing bridges in Istanbul, Turkey.

The bridge will be situated between Garipçe in Sarıyer on the European side and Poyrazköy in Beykoz on the Asian side. [2] The foundation stone laying ceremony was held on 29 May 2013. [3] [4] [5] [6]


Yavuz Sultan Selim in sea of Marmora, 1919-20 - History

W orld War 1 at Sea

TURKISH or OTTOMAN NAVY

by Gordon Smith, Naval-History.Net

Naval War in Outline
Names of World War 1 Turkish warships
Warship numbers and losses, 1914-18
Losses by year
Key to main characteristics including Turkish torpedo and gun calibres
Main ship types - Dreadnoughts to Submarines

In 1914, the main concern of the Turkish Navy was maintaining a balance of power with the Greeks with whom relations were very tense. Both countries were attempting to enlarge their navies and Turkish orders included two British dreadnoughts, two scout cruisers and four destroyers, none of which were delivered. In fact the non-delivery of the two completed dreadnoughts did much to bring Turkey into the war on Germany’s side in November 1914.

By then the only modern additions to the Turkish Navy were the German battlecruiser 'Goeben' and light cruiser 'Breslau', which having escaped from the British Navy in August 1914, were nominally transferred to Turkey although largely retaining their German crews. The entire Turkish fleet then came under the command of German Rear-Admiral Wilhelm Souchon.


SMS Moltke, sister-ship to Goeben (Maritime Quest)

Although much of the subsequent action against the Russian Fleet in the Black Sea is associated with the 'Goeben' and 'Breslau', the obsolescent Turkish Navy played its part, including the combined German-Turkish bombardment of Russian bases before the declaration of war. Other operations included escorting coal convoys from Zonguldak to the Constantinople area, sweeping Russian mines off Constantinople, escorting troop convoys through the Sea of Marmara to Gallipoli, manning some of the Dardanelles defences, and operating light flotillas on the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers.

Names of World War 1 Turkish Warships

'One of the problems with the names of WW1 Turkish vessels lies in different systems of transliteration. Turks then used the Ottoman script and this gave rise to many differences when these names were reproduced in European languages. Since the alphabet reform introduced in the Turkish Republic by (Kemal) Ataturk in 1926 that difficulty has been considerably reduced as Turks now use the Latin alphabet with some modifications' (Mr John Norton, Director, Centre for Turkish Studies, University of Durham)

WARSHIP NUMBERS and LOSSES - 1914-18 *

August 1914 Strength

Wartime additions

1914-18 losses

* Includes German 'Goeben' and 'Breslau', nominally transferred to Turkish Navy but commanded and largely manned by the German Navy

Year - Ships lost (all in Turkish waters or Black Sea)
1914 - coast defence ship 'Mesudiye'
1915 - destroyer 'Yarhisar', protected cruiser 'Medjidiye' , battleship 'Hayreddin Barbarossa'
1916 - destroyer 'Gairet-i-Watanije'
1917 - destroyer 'Jadhigar-i-Millet'
1918 - light cruiser 'Midilli' (German 'Breslau')

Key to Main Characteristics

Tonnage - standard displacement Speed - designed speed at standard displacement, rarely attained in service Main armament - sometimes changed as the war progressed secondary armament usually changed Complement - normal peace time. Exceeded in war with consequent reduction in living space and higher battle casualties Year - year or years class completed and normally entered service. Only includes ships completed up to war's end Loss Positions - estimated from location unless available from reliable sources Casualties - totals of men lost, or survivors plus saved, will often exceed peacetime complements.

Turkish torpedo and gun calibres in inches

Guns: 28cm - 11in 15.2cm - 6in 15cm - 5.9in 12cm - 4.7in 10.5cm - 4.1in 8.8cm - 3.5in 7.6cm - 3in 6.5cm - 2.5in 4.7cm - 1.8in

DREADNOUGHTS

August 1914 Strength

Residaye and Sultan Osman I completing in Britain. Both taken over by Royal Navy in August 1914 as 'Erin' and 'Agincourt' respectively. Paid for by Turkish public appeals, there was widespread resentment at their requisition.


Sultan Osman I in service as HMS Agincourt (Maritime Quest)

BATTLECRUISERS

Wartime Addition (1)

1. German MOLTKE class, YAVUZ SULTAN SELIM (German GOEBEN) - 22,600t, 25 knots, 10-28cm/12-15cm/12-8.8cm, 1,050 crew, completed 1912

Yavuz Sultan Selim - 'Sultan Selim' or variously 'Yavus', 'Yavouz', or 'Jawus Sultan Selim', modern 'Yavuz' - meaning stern, tough, grim, even amazingly clever. Sultan Selim I (1470-1512) who greatly expanded the Ottoman Empire is often referred to as Yavuz Selim - Selim the Grim. Battlecruiser 'Yavuz' survived until the 1970’s to be broken up.

Goeben arrived in Turkish waters on 10th August 1914, served under the Turkish flag with her German officers and crew from 16th August, and officially transferred to Turkey in November 1914, although still mainly German manned and controlled. On the 29th October 1914, 'Goeben' and light cruiser 'Breslau' (see below) took part with Turkish forces in bombardments and raids on Russian Black Sea ports and shipping before the formal declaration of war between Turkey and Russia.

Goeben , damaged 18th November 1914, northern Black Sea 20 miles off Cape Sarych, Russian Crimea - 12in shell from Russian battleship 'Evstafi' . On the 17th, the squadron of five Russian Black Sea pre-dreadnoughts - 'Evstafi' (or 'Ivstafi'), 'Ioann Zlatoust', 'Panteleimon', 'Rotislav', 'Tri Sviatitelia', bombarded Trebizond on the far eastern coast of Turkey. 'Goeben' and 'Breslau' sailed to intercept off the Crimea. Only 'Goeben' and 'Evstafi' were initially in contact during the short action before both sides disengaged. 'Goeben' hit once with an opening salvo, 'Evstafi' hit four times

Goeben, damaged 26th December 1914, Black Sea in Turkish waters, 1 mile off the outer buoy into the Bosphorus - 2 Russian mines. On the 21st December 1914, Russian minelayers laid a large field off the Bosphorus. By then 'Goeben' was escorting three transports to the eastern port of Trebizond. On the night of the 23rd/24th, the Russians attempted, unsuccessfully to block the entrance to Zonguldak to stop the transport of vital coal supplies. 'Breslau', sailing to meet 'Goeben' intercepted and sank two of the four blockships. After the two German ships met up, 'Goeben' continued on to the Bosphorus, where she was mined in the afternoon. Badly damaged, flooded and with no local dock large enough to take her, 'Goeben' was repaired with cofferdam-filled concrete, but was not operational until May 1915.

Goeben, damaged 10th May 1915, Black Sea off the Turkish coast - by 2-12in shells from Russian battleships. At the start of the Gallipoli landings in late April 1915, the Russian pre-dreadnoughts carried out a series of bombardments of the Bosphorus area. This was repeated on the 9th May. 'Goeben' sortied and at 07.50hrs was in action with three of the Russians, including the 'Evstafi'. She failed to get any hits, received two herself, but was not seriously damaged. The two other Russian pre-dreadnoughts had come up, and the by-now seriously out-gunned 'Goeben' ceased fire at 08.12hrs and escaped with her higher speed.

Goeben, damaged 20th January 1918, Aegean Sea, off and within the Dardanelles, Turkey - by 3 British-laid mines, followed by aerial bombs. Sailed from the Bosphorus early on the 19th on a sortie with cruiser 'Breslau' to attack Allied forces off the Dardanelles. Struck one mine early on the 20th on passage out and slightly damaged. Sank British monitors 'Lord Raglan' and 'M.28' in Kusu Bay, Imbros island around 07.40 hrs, but as the two ships rounded Cape Kephalo at 0830 and headed for Mudros, Lemnos island, 'Breslau' hit a mine. 'Goeben' was taking her in tow when mined again, and then the cruiser detonated four more mines in quick succession, settling fast at 0900 with most of her crew. 'Goeben' headed back for the Dardanelles, hitting a third mine, and then half way in and listing, ran hard aground at Nagara Point just before midday, still on the 20th.

Attacked by British aircraft, including Sopwith Baby seaplanes from the 'Ark Royal', a reported 270 sorties were made, but the bombs that hit were too small to cause serious damage. The only British submarine 'E-2' was unserviceable at Malta. The 'E-14' (Lt Cdr White), normally on patrol in the Otranto Straits, was despatched from Corfu, broke through to Nagara Point on the 27th, but found 'Goeben' gone, towed off the day before by Turkish pre-dreadnought 'Torgud Reiss'. The British submarine was sunk. With the 'Goeben' largely out of action for the rest of the war, the German Mediterranean Division ceased to exist, but she survived as the Turkish 'Yawuz' until well after the end of World War 2.

PRE-DREADNOUGHT BATTLESHIPS

August 1914 Strength (2)

2. German BRANDENBERG class, HAYREDDIN BARBAROSSA (ex-German 'Kurfurst Friedrich Wilhelm'), TORGUD REISS (or 'Turgut Reis', ex-'Weissenburg') - 10,500t, 4-28cm/6-10.5cm/8-8.8cm, completed 1894. Sold to Turkey in 1910

Hayreddin Barbarossa - Variously 'Heireddin, 'Harradin, 'Kheiredin, 'Hairredin Barbarossa', modern 'Barbaros Hayreddin Pasa' or 'Barbaros Hayrettin'. Ottoman grand admiral (1534-46) born as Hizir Reis on the island of Midilli c 1466. Called Hayreddin by Muslims and Barbarossa - the Red Bearded One by his European enemies.

HAYREDDIN BARBAROSSA , 8th August 1915, Turkish Waters, off Bulair, Gallipoli Peninsula in Sea of Marmara (40-27’N, 26-48’E) - torpedoed once by British submarine 'E-11'. One day after the last Allied landing on the Gallipoli Peninsula - at Suvla Bay - in a final attempt to break the deadlock on land, pre-dreadnought 'Hayreddin Barbarossa' (Commodore Mustafapasali Muzaffer) had sailed through the Sea of Marmara, escorted by two destroyers to support the Turkish land defences. Expecting her to take part in the battle, 'E.11' (Lt-Cdr Naismith VC), on her second patrol in the Sea of Marmara during which she accounted for numerous vessels including torpedo gunboat 'Berc-i-Satvet' that month, waited at the northern end of the Dardanelles Narrows. The 'Barbarossa' capsized and sank in fifteen minutes with the loss of 250 men.

Turgut Reis commanded by Captain Sultanselimli Namik Hasan

August 1914 Strength (1)

3. MESUDIYE - 9,250t, 16 knots, heavy guns not mounted/12-15.2cm/14-7.6cm, 600 crew, 1876

Mesudiye - also 'Messudieh' or 'Messudiyeh'. From Arabic word meaning good fortune, auspiciousness, happiness. No longer in general use, but would be spelt 'Mesudiyet'.

MESUDIYE, 13th December 1914, Turkish waters, off Chanak in the Dardanelles - torpedoed once by British submarine 'B-11'. 'Mesudiye' (Commander Besiktasli Arif Nebi) was moored as guardship just south of the Dardanelles Narrows at Chanak, in Sari Siglar Bay on the Asian side. Against the strong currents, British submarine 'B-11' (Lt Norman Holbrook) managed to penetrate some 12 miles and negotiated five lines of mines. Sighting her at anchor, 'B.11' fired one torpedo from 6-800 yards. 'Mesudiye' rolled over and sank in 10 minutes, trapping many men inside who were later released. Most of her guns were salvaged for the shore defences. Losses totalled 38, including 10 officers and 27 men. 'B.11' escaped safely back to sea and Lt Holbrook was awarded the Victoria Cross.

August 1914 Strength (2)

4. HAMADIYE (or 'Hamidieh', ex-'Abdul Hamid', renamed after the 1908 revolution) - 3,800t, 22 knots, 2-15.2cm/8-11.9cm, 300 crew, 1904

Hamadiye was commanded by Lt Cdr Kasimpasali Vasif Muhiddin

5. MEDJIDIYE - 3,250t, 22 knots, 2-15.2cm/8-11.9cm, 310 crew, 1904

Medjidiye - or 'Medjidieh'. Means glory or honour, one of the ascriptions of God. Also the name of a coin and a distinction later awarded by Ottoman rulers as the Mecidiye Order. No longer in general use, but spelt 'Mecidiye'.

MEDJIDIYE , 3rd April 1915, Black Sea, 15 miles off Odessa, Russian Ukraine (c 46-15’N, 30-45’E) - by one Russian mine. Sailing to attack Russian transports at Odessa in company with the 'Hamidiye' and four torpedo boats under the overall command of German Cdr Buchsel, 'Medjidiye' went down in shallow water around dawn, just short of the target. One of the torpedo boats attempted to destroy her with a torpedo. A major loss for the small Turkish Navy, most of her crew were rescued by the torpedo boats, but there were 14 men. (Some sources describe her as returning from bombarding Odessa or even the inland port of Nikolayev). 'Medjidiye' was salvaged by the Russians in June 1915 and recommissioned as the 'Prut' in October, named after the minelayer lost to 'Goeben' in October 1914. Captured by the Germans at Sevastopol in 1918 and returned to Turkey, surviving until 1948.

6. German MAGDEBURG class, MIDILLI (German BRESLAU) - 4,550t, 27 knots, 12-10.5cm, 355 crew, completed 1912

Midilli - The Greek island of Mytilene or Lesbos off the west Aegean coast of Turkey

Breslau arrived in Turkish waters with battlecruiser 'Goeben', and transferred, manned and served on the same basis

Breslau, damaged 18th July 1915, Black Sea, off the Turkish coast in the vicinity of the Bosphorus, near Kata Burnmu (Kara Burnu, c 41-15’N, 29-30’E ) - Russian mine. Russian forces raided the Anatolian (Turkey-in-Asia) coast regularly. Five weeks after clashing with two Russian destroyers, 'Breslau', sailing to protect transports, was mined on one of the early Russian-laid fields aimed at interfering with the coal trade between Zonguldak and the Bosphorus. She was out of action for a number of months because of a shortage of Turkish repair facilities

BRESLAU (German town, now Polish Wroclaw), sunk 20th January 1918, Aegean Sea, off Imbros island near the Dardanelles (40-05N, 26-02E) - total of 5 Allied mines within 30 minutes. See account of the 'Goeben' above for details. 'Breslau' (Captain Kettner) sank at 09.10hrs 348 men, most of her crew were lost - 32 Turkish and 316 German

August 1914 Strength (8)

7. French DURANDAL class, BASRA, SAMSUN, TASOZ, YARHISAR, 4 ships, 1 or 2 lost - 280t, 28 knots, 1-6.5cm/6-4.7cm/2-45cm tt, 1907

Samsun (Lt Cdr Uskudarli Nezir Abdullah) was sunk by British submarine 'E-11' on the 14th August 1915 off Hora (Khora?) in the Sea of Marmara according to Turkish sources. 'Conway's' and 'Janes Fighting Ships' show her as surviving the war with her two remaining sisters.

YARHISAR (village in province of Bursa, bordering Sea of Marmara. also "Yar Hissar), 3rd December 1915, Turkish waters, eastern Sea of Marmara at entrance to Gulf of Izmit (Ismit or Ismid, c 40-45’N, 29-30’E) - torpedoed by British submarine 'E-11'. Hunting for a reported British submarine, 'Yarhisar' (Lt Cdr Ahmet Hulusi Hasan) was torpedoed by 'E-11' (Lt Cdr Naismith) on her third and last patrol in the Sea of Marmara just as the Gallipoli Campaign was about to end with with the evacuation of Allied forces. She went down between Yalova and Tuzla. Of the crew of 70 Turks and 15 Germans, 42 men were lost including 36 Turkish men survivors included the CO and five Germans

8. German S.165 class, GAIRET-I-WATANIJE, JADHIGAR-I-MILLET, MUAVENET-I-MILLET, NUMENE-I-HAMIJE, 4 ships, 2 lost - 620t, 36 knots, 2-7.5 cm/3-45cm tt, 84 crew, launched 1909

GAIRET-I-WATANIJE (or 'Gaireti Vatanye', modern form 'Gayret-i-Vataniye' - patriotic zeal), 28th or 30th October 1916, Black Sea, off Balchik near Varna, Bulgaria (c 43-00’N, 28-00’E) - ran aground. Sources vary on the date. 'Gairet-i-Watanije' (Lt Cdr Kasimpasali Cemil Ali) may have run on to the uncharted rocks on the 28th, and scuttled or abandoned on the 30th

JADHIGAR-I-MILLET (modern form 'Yadigar-i-Millet' - The Nation’s Reminder), night of 9th/10th July 1917, Turkish waters, off Istinye (the Golden Horn), Constantinople in the Bosphorus (39-56’N, 29-10.5’E) - bombed by a British RNAS aircraft. A Handley Page bomber flown out from Britain, flew from Mudros late on the 9th to attack the German big ships 'Goeben' and 'Breslau' based at Constantinople. They were missed but the nearby 'Jadhigar-i-Millet' (Lt Cdr Cesmeli Raif Said) was hit and sunk just after midnight on the 10th there were 29 men. She was refloated and scrapped.

Muavenet-i-Millet (or 'Muavenet-i-Milleye'), Turkish manned (Cdr Ayasofyali Ahmet) with German commanding officer, torpedoed and sank British pre-dreadnought battleship 'Goliath' on the night of the 12th/13th May 1915 off the Gallipoli Peninsula

9. French EMERAUDE class, MUSTECIP ONBASI (also 'Mustecip Ombasi' or 'Mustadieh Ombashi', captured French 'Turquoise') - 350/450t, 11/9 knots, 6-45cm tt, 23 crew, 1908

Turquoise ran aground in the Dardanelles, 30th October 1915. Captured, refloated and renamed, she was not commissioned in the Turkish Navy

10. NUSRET (or 'Nousret') - 365t, 15 knots, 40mines/2-4.7cm, launched 1912

Nusret (Lt Cdr Tophaneli Hakki) was one of a number of miscellaneous mine warfare ships. On the night of the 8th March 1915, under the guidance of Lt Col Geehl, a Turkish mine expert, she laid a line of 20 mines in Eren Keui or Arenkioi Bay at the time of the Allied naval attack on the Dardanelles defences. Ten days later on the 18th, British pre-dreadnought battleships 'Irresistible' and 'Ocean' and the French 'Bouvet' were all lost in this small field, and British battlecruiser 'Inflexible' badly damaged. If any one small ship changed the course of World War 1 it must be "Nusret".

An accurate reproduction of Nusret is on the shore at Army-Navy Park, Channakkale in the Dardanelle

With special thanks to: Lieutenant Ersan Bas, Director of Naval Archives, Naval Museum Command, Istanbul, Turkey

Mr John Norton, Director, Centre for Turkish Studies, University of Durham, England


Decision stage

The location of the bridge remained unclear for a long time, and various claims were made about the route, but especially the forest-covered northern parts of the city came to the fore. Gürsel Tekin, the Istanbul provincial chairman of the Republican People's Party of the period, made a press statement with the documents he prepared with the knowledge of Erdoğan and claimed that the third bridge will be built between Beykoz and Tarabya. He stated that the highway to be built for the bridge starts from the forested areas of Silivri and that the highway will damage the forests and water basins of Istanbul. He said that tens of thousands of acres of land on the route the highway will pass through have changed hands, and that they have other documents to share if their claims are denied.


Yavuz Sultan Selim Modu for Mount & Blade: Warband

MODUMUZA UYUMLU WARBAND SÜRÜMÜ 1.163 VE ÜST SÜRÜMLERİDİR.

HATA:Krallık beylerinin adının varsayılan Boyar, Martial gibi isimler var.Bir yazılım hatasıdır.Çözülmeye çalışılıyor.

--------- Hata Sanılan, ama hata olmayan özellik -------------

-Haritada hiçbir yer gözükmüyor.Hata değildir .Geze geze yerler açılır.

Mod Senaryosu: 16. yüzyılda Yavuz Sultan Selim'in yönettiği Osmanlı devletini konu alan bir mod.
Avrupa, Asya, Arap yarımadası derken tüm dünyayı yaşamak ve yaşamakta olan dünyaya Osmanlıya yardım etmeyi mi seçeceksin, yoksa kendi yolunu mu çizeceksin?
Karar senin, heyecanlı bir serüvene hoş geldin.

Fransa Krallığı,
İsveç Krallığı,
İspanya Krallığı,
Lehistan Krallığı,
Delhi Sultanlığı,
Kazak Hanlığı,
Aztek İmparatorluğu,
Arabistan Devleti,
Rus Çarlığı,
Osmanlı İmparatorluğu,
Moğol İmparatorluğu,
20'den fazla devlet daha var ama sürü devletler bunlar diyebiliriz.

- Yepyeni itemler
- Yavuz Sultan Selim döneminin Osmanlısı,
- Silah geliştirme özelliği
- Tarihe uygun yepyeni askerler
- Tarihe uygun karakterler,
- Tüm dünyayı kapsayan bir harita
- Tarihe uygun yepyeni şehirler
- Yeni hayvanlar (Fil, deve, vs)
- Siyasi Harita
- Yepyeni yoldaşlar,
- Şehirlere isim verebilme.
- Kamptan Hisar Kurabilme
- Hayat kadınları ile grup moralini yükseltme,
- Doktor ile askerlerini hızlı iyileştirme,
- Kendi askerlik kurma,
- Kale oluşturma sistemi,
- Yepyeni müzikler
- Yeni kılıç sesleri
- Yeni gökyüzü
- Deniz Savaşları
- Banka Sistemi
- Yepyeni silahlar,
- Yepyeni kalkanlar,
- Yepyeni zırhlar,
- Ateşli silahlar oyuna eklendi,
- Köylerinizden, kalelerinizden ve şehirlerinizden fazla vergi almak ,
- 5 Adam başlangıç oyunu oyundan kaldırıldı ,
- Şehirlere bağış yapma özelliği getirildi,
- Şehirlerden asker satın alma oyuna eklendi,
- Geçiş animasyonları değiştirildi,
- Demirci ile silah yükseltme
- Yeni Asker Grupları
- Şehir ekonomisinin kervan girişine göre artıp azalması .
- Savaşta ölürsek oyunun devam etmesi
- yeni savaş stilleri
- Yeni savaş grupları
- Yepyeni hareket animasyonları
- orduya katılabilme
- Şehirlerde yeni seçenekler
- Köylerde yeni seçenekler
- Yeni Menüler
- Askerlerin moralini yükseltme
- Kendi askeri sistemini oluşturma
- krallık kurduktan sonra kendine ait yer yapma
- Oyun parayla başlama.
- yeni yüz tipleri
- Hancıya yoldaşları sorabilme
- Şehre envanter saklayabilme
- Ve daha bir çok yeni özellik

NOT:Mod büyük olduğundan yüksek sistem gereksinimleri istiyor.
Oyuna başlamadan önce ayarlar kısmında bilgisayarınızın sistem özelliklerine göre değiştirin.
Yoksa hata verebiliyor.Özellikle de 32bit bilgisayarlar özellikle değiştirsin.

Mod Yapımında Kullanılan Modlar:

16.Yüzyıl Modu
Cihat ve Haçlılar Modu
12.Yüzyıl Modu
1429 HD Edition Modu
Sands of Faith
Europe 1200
Osmanlı Senaryosu
15.Yüzyıl Modu. "Hepsine Teşekürler."


The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge and the Northern Marmara Motorway Project form part of the initiative to make Turkey one of the world’s ten biggest economies by 2023.

Proposals for the Northern Marmara Motorway include the construction of a 115km motorway and access road between Odayeri and Pasaköy, including the third Bosphorus Bridge.

The new bridge is the third one on the Bosphorus Strait following the First Bosphorus Bridge, which was put into operation in 1973, and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (second bridge), which was completed in 1988.

It consists of a two-way, four-lane motorway and two high-speed railway tracks, and is accessed by approximately 135,000 vehicles a day in each direction. The bridge crosses the Bosphorus Strait between Garipçe village on the European side and Poyraz on the Asian side.

The two railway tracks are proposed to have 25kV overhead electrification in the near future. The preliminary design allows for freight trains up to 400m-long and a speed of 80km/h, and passenger trains up to 400m-long and running at a maximum speed of 160km/h.

The rail system will be integrated with the Marmaray and the Istanbul Subway to link Atatürk Airport, Sabiha Gökçen Airport, and the proposed third airport line. It will be accessible to passengers travelling between Edirne and Izmit.


Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, Istanbul, Turkey

Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (3rd Bosphorus Bridge) is being constructed over the Bosphorus Strait in Istanbul, Turkey.

The new bridge, which is an integral part of the Northern Marmara Motorway Project, will be located in the Odayeri РPasak̦y section of the motorway. General Directorate of Roadways (KGM), Turkey is the owner of the project.

Construction of the bridge started with the foundation stone laying ceremony on 29 May 2013 and is expected to be completed by October 2015. It is being developed on a Build – Operate – Transfer (BOT) basis and is expected to create approximately 7,000 construction and 500 operational jobs.

The estimated investment on the project is 4.5 billion Turkish liras (approximately $1.62bn).

Design highlights of the Yavuz Sultan Selim bridge

George Washington Bridge, Hudson River, United States of America

George Washington Bridge (GW Bridge) spans over the Hudson River, connecting Manhattan in New York with Bergen County in New Jersey.

Also referred to as the bridge of firsts, it will be the world’s first bridge to accommodate an eight-lane highway and a two-lane railway on the same level.

At 59m, the bridge is also expected to be the world’s widest suspension bridge. It will have a main span of 1,408m, making it one of the longest railroad suspension bridges. The bridge towers will be 330m- high above sea level, making it the world’s highest tower.

Details of the 3rd Bosphorus bridge

The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge and the Northern Marmara Motorway Project are being undertaken as part of the initiative to make Turkey one of the world’s ten biggest economies by 2023.

Proposals for the Northern Marmara Motorway include the construction of 115km motorway and access road between Odayeri and Pasaköy, including the third Bosphorus Bridge.

The new bridge is the third one on the Bosphorus Strait following the 1st Bosphorus Bridge, which was put into operation in 1973, and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (2nd Bridge), which was completed in 1988.

It will consist of a two-way four-lane motorway and two high-speed railway tracks, and is expected to be accessed by approximately 135,000 vehicles a day in each direction. The bridge will cross the Bosphorus Strait between Garipçe village on the European side and Poyraz on the Asian side.

The two railway tracks are proposed to have 25kV overhead electrification in the near future. The preliminary design allows for freight trains up to 400m-long and a speed of 80kmph, and passenger trains up to 400m-long and running at a maximum speed of 160kmph.

The rail system will be integrated with the Marmaray and the Istanbul Subway to link Atatürk Airport, Sabiha Gökçen Airport, and the proposed 3rd Airport line. It will be accessible to passengers travelling between Edirne and Izmit.

3rd Bosphorus Bridge construction

It is expected that the bridge construction will be completed within 36 months and, when operational, is expected to reduce the vehicular traffic on the other two Bosphorus bridges. It will include the construction of 59 bridge floors having a length of 5.5m each.

The bridge construction is expected to use approximately 230,000m3 of concrete, 50,000t of iron, 57,000t of steel, and 28,000t of cable.

“Construction of the bridge started with the foundation stone laying ceremony on 29 May 2013 and is expected to be completed by October 2015.”

Seven banks, including Garantibank International, GarantiBankasi, T. HalkBankasi, T. IsBankasi, VakiflarBankasi, Ziraat Bankasi, and YapiKredi participated in financing $2.3bn for the Northern Marmara Highway Project, featuring the 3rd Bosphorus Bridge.

It is the highest financing ever secured for a greenfield project in a single contract in the Republic of Turkey’s history.

Contractors involved with the 3rd Bosphorus Bridge development

The consortium of IC IÇTAS – Astaldi was contracted for the construction and operation of the 3rd Bosphorus Bridge and Northern Marmara Motorway Project. The consortium will operate the project for a period of ten years, two months and 20 days before transferring it to the Ministry of Transportation.

AECOM was commissioned to prepare an environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) report for the project. STROS delivered four sets of NOV 2032 UP F7 construction hoists, a special tip-and- swivel platform, motors, and other equipment.

Michel Virlogeux, a structural engineer, and T-Engineering participated jointly in the concept design of the 3rd bridge. Mott MacDonald acted as the lender’s technical advisor, while Clifford Chance and DLA Piper were engaged as the legal advisors for the project.


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Naming

The name of the bridge was announced by President Abdullah Gül at the ground-breaking ceremony as the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, in honor of Ottoman Sultan Selim I (c. 1470–1520), who expanded the Ottoman Empire into the Middle East and North Africa in 1514–1517 and obtained the title of Caliph of Islam for the Ottoman dynasty after his conquest of Egypt in 1517. He was nicknamed Yavuz, traditionally translated in English as "grim," but closer to "stern" or "implacable" in meaning.

The choice of name for the bridge has led to protests by Alevis in Turkey because of the alleged role of Sultan Selim I, nicknamed "the Grim" due to his severity in ruling, exemplified by the Ottoman persecution of Alevis. After the Şahkulu Rebellion (1511) in Anatolia, and the Battle of Chaldiran (1514) in northwestern Iran, during which the Qizilbash warriors of the Alevis in eastern Anatolia (who adhere to the Shia sect of Islam) sided with Shah Ismail I of Safavid Persia, the victorious Selim I ordered the massacre of the Qizilbash, whom he considered traitors and heretics (see also Ottoman–Safavid relations and Ottoman–Persian Wars).


Selim chào đời năm 1465 tại Amasya, là con trai của Bayezid II (1481-1512) và là cháu nội của Mehmed II (1444-46 rồi 1451-81). Mẹ của Selim là Aysha Hatun. Selim được mô tả là một con người cao to, và rất giỏi về cưỡi ngựa và đánh kiếm. [2] Thuở nhỏ, ông theo học Mevlana Abdulhalim, một nhà giáo có tiếng ở kinh thành. Dưới triều đại Bayezid II, Selim được vua cha phong làm quan Tổng trấn Trabzon. Tại đây, ông được học hỏi thêm về phương pháp cai trị cũng như hệ thống quân sự của nhà nước phong kiến Ottoman.

Chiến tranh với Gruzia và Caucasius Sửa đổi

Thấy nước Gruzia láng giếng có nhiều hoạt động chống lại nhà Ottoman, Yavuz Sultan Selim đã ba lần tự ý ra quân đánh nước này. Quân Ottomani toàn thắng, và chiếm giữ Kars, Erzurum và Artvin (1508) và nhờ những hành động và thành công anh hùng của mình, ông ta được đặt tên là "Yavuz". Yavuz Sultan Selim đã tự ý mang quân tấn công vào vùng Caucasia mà không có sự cho phép của cha mình là Sultan Beyazid và sau đó hầu hết người Gruzia sống ở các vùng đất này đều cải sang Đạo Hồi. [2] [3]

Xung đột với phụ hoàng Sửa đổi

Yavuz Sultan Selim đã tấn công Caucasia mà không có sự cho phép của cha mình là Sultan Beyazid và sau đó ông muốn có một chức vụ thống đốc ở Rumeli để được ở gần kinh thành Istanbul. Khi không thể có được thứ mình muốn, ông ta đã phát quân tấn công Edirne qua Rumeli, nhưng sau đó ông bị quân đội của cha mình đánh bại và đã may mắn trốn thoát được đến Crimea. Năm 1512, Sehzade Ahmet, người con thứ tư của cha mình, được các quan kêu gọi đến Istanbul để trở thành người cai trị tiếp theo. Tuy nhiên lần này, cấm vệ quân Janissary đã nổi loạn và vì thế ông ta bị đá khỏi ngai vàng. Sau đó, Phụ hoàng Bayeizid II miễn cưỡng buộc phải nhường ngôi lại cho Yavuz Sultan Selim. [3]

Lên ngôi Sửa đổi

Năm 1502, Ismail I sáng lập nhà Safavid ở Ba Tư. Ismail I vốn là một người theo hệ phái Shia của đạo Hồi, đã tiến hành xâm lấn lãnh thổ đồng thời truyền bá Shia vào Ottoman thuộc hệ phái Sunni. [2] Hay tin, Bayezid II cho quan quân đi đánh dẹp, nhưng không nổi. Thậm tệ nhất là khi tể tướng của triều đình Ottoman là Ali Pasha chết trong khi dẹp giặc.

Năm 1512, nhận thấy sự yếu kém của nhà vua, các quan đại thần trong triều đã quyết định phế truất Bayezid II và thay vào đó là lập người con thứ của nhà vua, Ahmed, [2] người mà họ tin sẽ là một vị vua mạnh mẽ hơn. [4] Tuy nhiên, cuộc chiến tranh giành quyền kế vị bùng nổ giữa Ahmed và Selim. Kết quả là Selim, với sự giúp đỡ của toán Cấm vệ quân Janissary, giành chiến thắng, còn Ahmed bại vong. Sau đó, các quan dự định mời con thứ sáu của vua là Korkut [5] lên ngôi, nhưng toán Janissary từ chối. Ngày 25 tháng 4 năm 1512, Bayezid ban chiếu thoái vị và truyền ngôi cho Selim. [2] Thế là ông lên ngôi, trở thành vua thứ 9 của nhà Ottoman. Ngay lập tức, ông xử tử các anh em của mình, và cả các con của họ.

Selim là một trong những vị vua thành công và đáng kính nhất của Đế chế. Ông ta cao lớn, mạnh mẽ, dũng cảm, dữ dằn, nhưng rất khiêm tốn mặc dù có năng lực và viết thơ. Ông không bao giờ nghỉ ngơi trong thời gian cai trị của mình, ông làm việc chăm chỉ và tổ chức các chiến dịch, lấp đầy kho bạc với rất nhiều vàng. Ông là một chuyên gia về sử dụng kiếm, bắn cung và đấu vật. Ông ta có ria mép dài nhưng ông ta cắt râu điều đó làm ông không giống như các vị vua khác. [3]

Mở mang bờ cõi Sửa đổi

Cuộc chinh phạt Ba Tư Sửa đổi

Năm 1489, Yavuz Selim trở thành thống đốc của Trabzon. Do mối đe dọa của người Shiis đang phát triển ở Ba Tư, anh ta đã chiến đấu chống lại lực lượng của Shah Ismail. Năm 1508, ông đã vượt qua quân đoàn lớn của Shah và đẩy họ ra khỏi biên giới. [3]

Sultan Selim I có tham vọng xâm chiếm vùng Trung Đông và tiếp tục những cuộc chinh phạt của ông nội là sultan Mehmed II. [2]

Thoạt đầu, ông cất quân xâm lược Đế quốc Ba Tư, để ngăn chặn sự truyền bá giáo phái Shia vào lãnh thổ Ottoman. Sultan Selim I và vua Ismail I nhà Safavid đã gửi nhau nhiều tối hậu thư. [2]

Năm 1514, trước chiến dịch tới Ba Tư, Yavuz Selim I đã ra lệnh đàn áp hàng ngàn người Alevis ở tỉnh Rum ở Anatolia để tránh nguy cơ bị tấn công trong khi hành quân đến lãnh thổ đó cho cuộc chiến. [3]

Ngày 23 tháng 8 năm 1514, hai vua thân chinh đối nhau trong trận Chaldiran nổi tiếng. Selim - với 60.000 - 212.000 quân, đã đại phá 12.000 - 40.000 quân của Ismail. Ismail bị thương, và vợ của vua này bị bắt làm con tin. Sau đó, quân đội Ottoman tạm thời chiếm Tabriz, kinh đô của đế quốc Ba Tư.

Cuộc chinh phạt Ai Cập Sửa đổi

Sau chiến thắng Chaldiran, Selim chuyển chú ý của mình sang Ai Cập do nhà Mamluk cai trị. Thế rồi, ông đã cất quân xâm lược Ai Cập, rồi đập tan quân Mamluk trong trận Marj Dabiq gần Aleppo (1516). [6] Vua nhà Mamluk là Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri bại vong và quân Ottoman chặt lấy đầu al-Ghawri. Cùng năm ấy, con al-Ghawri là Tuman bay II lên thay vua cha.

Sau chiến thắng Marj Dabiq, quân Ottoman chiếm Syria, Palestine ngày nay. [6]

Sang năm sau (1517) Selim tiến vào Cairo, và thắng quân Mamluk tại Ridanieh, bắt giết Tuman bay. Kinh đô Cairo thất thủ, Ai Cập, cùng với hai thành phố thánh địa Hồi giáo là Mecca và Medinah sáp nhập vào đế quốc Ottoman. Selim xưng làm Hakim un Haremeyn (Vua của hai miền đất thánh) hay Khadim un Haremeyn (The Servant of The Two Holy Shrines). [2]

Sau cuộc chinh phạt Ai Cập và các miền đất thánh năm 1517, Selim I đã bắt vua nhà Abbasid của Cairo là Al-Mutawakkil III (lên ngôi năm 1509) phải nhường ngôi khalip, [6] đồng thời phải giao chiếc áo choàng và thanh gươm - của thánh Muhammad đạo Hồi - cho ông. Mutawakkil đồng ý, và kể từ đó, Selim - cũng như các vua nhà Ottoman kế vị, đều xưng làm khalip.

Trong các năm 1515 - 1517 Selim đã biến Ottoman thành đế quốc hùng mạnh nhất của thế giới Hồi giáo. [6]

Selim Yavuz qua đời tại Corlu, Erdine năm 1520, hưởng thọ 55 tuổi, ở ngôi 8 năm. Tương truyền trong thời gian này ông đang chuẩn bị chinh phạt đảo Rhodes ở Hy Lạp. [7]

Nghe tin vua cha qua đời, quan Tổng trấn Manisa là Suleiman 25 tuổi lên thay, xây dựng đất nước hùng mạnh. Đó là vua Suleiman I.

Dù chỉ trị vì trong một thời gian ngắn ngủi, Selim là một vị vua có công với đất nước. [2] Theo các sử gia, Selim có tính khí nóng nảy và cường tráng, giống như một anh hùng.

Ở Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, tương truyền vẫn thường có một số câu nguyền để lăng mạ những người bất đồng chính kiến "cầu cho ngươi được là một tể tướng của Selim". Câu nói này bắt nguồn từ tính cách tàn bạo của Selim, một người luôn luôn có lòng tin tưởng và kỳ vọng thái quá vào chính các tể tướng và quan lại của mình, đã không ngần ngại xử tử vô số những tể tướng làm phật lòng Selim.


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