Women’s History Milestones: A Timeline
Women’s history is full of trailblazers in the fight for equality in the United States. From Abigail Adams imploring her husband to “remember the ladies” when envisioning a government for the American colonies, to suffragists like Susan B. Anthonyਊnd Elizabeth Cady Stanton fighting for women&aposs right to vote, to the rise of feminism and Hillary Clinton becoming the first female nominee for president by a major political party, American women have long fought for equal footing throughout the nation’s history.
And while some glass ceilings have been shattered (see: Title IX), others remain. But progress continues to be made. As Clinton said while accepting her nomination, “When there are no ceilings, the sky&aposs the limit.”
Below is a timeline of notable events in U.S. women’s history.
Changing role of Irish women over past 50 years reflected in relationships
IRISH RELATIONSHIPS HAVE changed alongside shifting cultural norms over the past 50 years, with the changing role of women in society marking one of the biggest shifts, according to a leading Irish relationship expert.
“Over the past 50 years we’ve seen fundamental change in Irish society and Irish family life, however one constant has remained – the desire for people to form strong, sustaining relationships throughout their life,” said Relationships Ireland Chief Executive, Brendan Madden, ahead of the company celebrating its 50th anniversary.
The role of women
One of the biggest impacts to Irish society in the past 50 years has been the changing the role of women, with more females participating in the workforce and more in professional positions – and this has caused relationship and family dynamics to shift, Madden said.
“Typical issues of conflict centre around household chores and financial issues,” he said. “In a situation where a couple are both breadwinners, making the decision about who goes out to work and who stays at home with the children is more difficult. There’s much more choice – and so there’s much more stress.”
He noted that while societal expectations surrounding women had changed considerably over the past number of decades, the equivalent shift had not occurred with the perceived roles of men. The result, he said, was that women often had to juggle their careers while still handling the bulk of household duties.
“Before, society and culture was geared towards the role of parenthood and women had more support. Now, the expectation on women to have two roles,” said Madden. “But there is not the same amount of a societal shift towards men taking breaks in their careers.”
As well as women now being an active part of the country’s workforce, the nature of working lives has also changed in the past number of decades – and can interfere with people’s personal lives, Madden said: “People are also expected to work harder and work longer hours. There is less leisure time,” he said. “And while people now have fewer children they are expected to spend more time with them.”
Increasing acceptance of same sex relationships, lone parents and cohabiting is also a notable change in the Ireland’s cultural landscape, said Madden.
Marriage and Divorce
A recent study by the ESRI, Households and Family: Structures in Ireland, found that one-in-three families in Ireland departs from the so-called “traditional model” of a married couple both of whom are in their first marriage – and that one-in-four children under 21 years of age lives in a family that does not conform to this model.
Never-married couples, cohabiting couples and lone mothers (both never-married and divorced or separated) dominate the “alternative family” structures of modern Ireland, according to the ERSI. These four family types, together with first-time marriages, account for 92 per cent of families.
A study by Trinity College Dublin on Attitudes to Family Formation in Ireland also revealed changing attitudes towards family life.
- 84 per cent believe that it is better to live with someone before you marry them
- 85 per cent feel that the religious reasons for marriage have become less important
- 69 per cent think that while marriage provides a solid family basis, cohabiting does too
- 69 per cent think that deciding to have a child together would be a far greater commitment than getting married
- 49 per cent of the sample had cohabited at least once
The time at which people are choosing to get married is also changing.
Couples are getting married later in life than they did in the 1960s, and the consequence – to some degree – is that couples are making better choices, said Madden.
However, no matter how committed the couple are to each other, the delay of big decisions like whether to get married or have children also raises the possibility that potential conflicts may not emerge until much later on in a relationship. “Problems can be negotiated much more easily when couples don’t have children,” Madden said.
He pointed out that children can bring to the fore unresolved issues in relationship, with the “peak points” being:
- The first 7 years of parenthood
- When children have grown up and moved out of home – and couples sometimes find that they have grown apart
“In general, people greatly underestimate the impact of having children on relationship,” he warned.
The increased acceptance of divorce within society has had many benefits for people, but the perception that a partner can leave a marriage create conflict too, Madden said: “In the past couples had less choice about leaving a marriage, so they had to figure out ways to resolve issues – of course, the downside was that many people were trapped in difficult or oppressive situations – but now people have much more choice and there is stress about whether to stay or leave.”
The main perennial area of conflict in relationships, Madden says, is a difference in communication styles between partners: typically, women complain that their partner “doesn’t listen”, while men accuse women of “nagging”.
Technology is also ever-more present in people’s lives, and Madden says it can pose a threat to interpersonal relationships. “We have so many communication tools available, but the irony is that the form of communication that we most need – interpersonal communication – is less than ever. Partners can seem more absent,” he said.
However, he noted that the behaviour of ‘retreating’ into technology like a computer or phone is not a new one, but simply a new version of older “retreat” devices - “burying” oneself in a newspaper, for example. The root problem, once again, boils down to communication.
The Changing Role and Status of Women since 1945 Essay
The Changing Role and Status of Women since 1945 1. Source A is an account of events towards the end of the Second World War written by a woman welder and it gives us a good idea of what happened to some women when the end of the war was drawing near and men started coming home. The source tells us that 12 women welders were made "redundant" with "no reason given" and although the source is only one woman's experience, a lot of women were made redundant as soon as the
Woman's Suffrage History Timeline
The below timeline is from the National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection Home Page on the Library of Congress website.
One Hundred Years toward Suffrage: An Overview
Compiled by E. Susan Barber
Abigail Adams writes to her husband, John, who is attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, asking that he and the other men--who were at work on the Declaration of Independence--"Remember the Ladies." John responds with humor. The Declaration's wording specifies that "all men are created equal."
1820 to 1880
Evidence from a variety of printed sources published during this period--advice manuals, poetry and literature, sermons, medical texts--reveals that Americans, in general, held highly stereotypical notions about women's and men's roles in society. Historians would later term this phenomenon "The Cult of Domesticity."
Emma Hart Willard founds the Troy Female Seminary in New York--the first endowed school for girls.
Oberlin College becomes the first coeducational college in the United States. In 1841, Oberlin awards the first academic degrees to three women. Early graduates include Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown.
Sarah Grimké begins her speaking career as an abolitionist and a women's rights advocate. She is eventually silenced by male abolitionists who consider her public speaking a liability.
The first National Female Anti-Slavery Society convention meets in New York City. Eighty-one delegates from twelve states attend.
Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts, eventually the first four-year college exclusively for women in the United States. Mt. Holyoke was followed by Vassar in 1861, and Wellesley and Smith Colleges, both in 1875. In 1873, the School Sisters of Notre Dame found a school in Baltimore, Maryland, which would eventually become the nation's first college for Catholic women.
Mississippi passes the first Married Woman's Property Act.
Female textile workers in Massachusetts organize the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association (LFLRA) and demand a 10-hour workday. This was one of the first permanent labor associations for working women in the United States.
The first women's rights convention in the United States is held in Seneca Falls, New York. Many participants sign a "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" that outlines the main issues and goals for the emerging women's movement. Thereafter, women's rights meetings are held on a regular basis.
Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery. Over the next ten years she leads many slaves to freedom by the Underground Railroad.
Amelia Jenks Bloomer launches the dress reform movement with a costume bearing her name. The Bloomer costume was later abandoned by many suffragists who feared it detracted attention from more serious women's rights issues.
Former slave Sojourner Truth delivers her "Ain't I a Woman?" speech before a spellbound audience at a women's rights convention in Akron, Ohio.
Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin, which rapidly becomes a bestseller.
The successful vulcanization of rubber provides women with reliable condoms for the first time. The birth rate in the United States continues its downward, century-long spiral. By the late 1900s, women will raise an average of only two to three children, in contrast to the five or six children they raised at the beginning of the century.
1861 to 65
The American Civil War disrupts suffrage activity as women, North and South, divert their energies to "war work." The War itself, however, serves as a "training ground," as women gain important organizational and occupational skills they will later use in postbellum organizational activity.
1865 to 1880
Southern white women create Confederate memorial societies to help preserve the memory of the "Lost Cause." This activity propels many white Southern women into the public sphere for the first time. During this same period, newly emancipated Southern black women form thousands of organizations aimed at "uplifting the race."
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony form the American Equal Rights Association, an organization for white and black women and men dedicated to the goal of universal suffrage.
The Fourteenth Amendment is ratified, which extends to all citizens the protections of the Constitution against unjust state laws. This Amendment was the first to define "citizens" and "voters" as "male."
The women's rights movement splits into two factions as a result of disagreements over the Fourteenth and soon-to-be-passed Fifteenth Amendments. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony form the more radical, New York-based National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA). Lucy Stone, Henry Blackwell, and Julia Ward Howe organize the more conservative American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), which is centered in Boston. In this same year, the Wyoming territory is organized with a woman suffrage provision. In 1890, Wyoming was admitted to the Union with its suffrage provision intact.
The Fifteenth Amendment enfranchises black men. NWSA refuses to work for its ratification, arguing, instead, that it be "scrapped" in favor of a Sixteenth Amendment providing universal suffrage. Frederick Douglass breaks with Stanton and Anthony over NWSA's position.
1870 to 1875
Several women--including Virginia Louisa Minor, Victoria Woodhull, and Myra Bradwell--attempt to use the Fourteenth Amendment in the courts to secure the vote (Minor and Woodhull) or the right to practice law (Bradwell). They all are unsuccessful.
Susan B. Anthony is arrested and brought to trial in Rochester, New York, for attempting to vote for Ulysses S. Grant in the presidential election. At the same time, Sojourner Truth appears at a polling booth in Battle Creek, Michigan, demanding a ballot she is turned away.
The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is founded by Annie Wittenmyer. With Frances Willard at its head (1876), the WCTU became an important force in the fight for woman suffrage. Not surprisingly, one of the most vehement opponents to women's enfranchisement was the liquor lobby, which feared women might use the franchise to prohibit the sale of liquor.
A Woman Suffrage Amendment is introduced in the United States Congress. The wording is unchanged in 1919, when the amendment finally passes both houses.
The NWSA and the AWSA are reunited as the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. During this same year, Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr found Hull House, a settlement house project in Chicago's 19th Ward. Within one year, there are more than a hundred settlement houses--largely operated by women--throughout the United States. The settlement house movement and the Progressive campaign of which it was a part propelled thousands of college-educated white women and a number of women of color into lifetime careers in social work. It also made women an important voice to be reckoned with in American politics.
Ida B. Wells launches her nation-wide anti-lynching campaign after the murder of three black businessmen in Memphis, Tennessee.
Hannah Greenbaum Solomon founds the National Council of Jewish Women (NCJW) after a meeting of the Jewish Women's Congress at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. In that same year, Colorado becomes the first state to adopt a state amendment enfranchising women.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton publishes The Woman's Bible. After its publication, NAWSA moves to distance itself from this venerable suffrage pioneer because many conservative suffragists considered her to be too radical and, thus, potentially damaging to the suffrage campaign. From this time, Stanton--who had resigned as NAWSA president in 1892--was no longer invited to sit on the stage at NAWSA conventions.
Mary Church Terrell, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Margaret Murray Washington, Fanny Jackson Coppin, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, Charlotte Forten Grimké, and former slave Harriet Tubman meet in Washington, D.C. to form the National Association of Colored Women (NACW).
Mary Dreier, Rheta Childe Dorr, Leonora O'Reilly, and others form the Women's Trade Union League of New York, an organization of middle- and working-class women dedicated to unionization for working women and to woman suffrage. This group later became a nucleus of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU).
The National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (NAOWS) is organized. Led by Mrs. Arthur Dodge, its members included wealthy, influential women and some Catholic clergymen--including Cardinal Gibbons who, in 1916, sent an address to NAOWS's convention in Washington, D.C. In addition to the distillers and brewers, who worked largely behind the scenes, the "antis" also drew support from urban political machines, Southern congressmen, and corporate capitalists--like railroad magnates and meatpackers--who supported the "antis" by contributing to their "war chests."
Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive (Bull Moose/Republican) Party becomes the first national political party to adopt a woman suffrage plank.
Alice Paul and Lucy Burns organize the Congressional Union, later known as the National Women's Party (1916). Borrowing the tactics of the radical, militant Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in England, members of the Woman's Party participate in hunger strikes, picket the White House, and engage in other forms of civil disobedience to publicize the suffrage cause.
The National Federation of Women's Clubs--which by this time included more than two million white women and women of color throughout the United States--formally endorses the suffrage campaign.
NAWSA president Carrie Chapman Catt unveils her "winning plan" for suffrage victory at a convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Catt's plan required the coordination of activities by a vast cadre of suffrage workers in both state and local associations.
Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first American woman elected to represent her state in the U.S. House of Representatives.
1918 to 1920
The Great War (World War I) intervenes to slow down the suffrage campaign as some--but not all--suffragists decide to shelve their suffrage activism in favor of "war work." In the long run, however, this decision proves to be a prudent one as it adds yet another reason to why women deserve the vote.
August 26, 1920
The Nineteenth Amendment is ratified. Its victory accomplished, NAWSA ceases to exist, but its organization becomes the nucleus of the League of Women Voters.
The National Woman's Party first proposes the Equal Rights Amendment to eliminate discrimination on the basis of gender. It has never been ratified.
Even with substantial progress in achieving gender parity at all levels of education, disparities remain in some developing regions. For instance, only 70 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys in tertiary level education in sub-Saharan Africa.
Ahead of her time, prominent women’s rights activist and Russian philanthropist Anna Filosofova believed it was better to educate and train the poor rather than provide cash benefits. In 1860, she co-founded a society to provide support to the poor, including not only affordable housing but also decent work for women.
Poverty is one of the greatest challenges of our time, disproportionally affecting women and girls their health, employment and safety. Today, 836 million people still live in extreme poverty.
New Zealand’s most celebrated suffragist, Kate Sheppard along with fellow campaigners presented a “monster” petition to Parliament demanding women’s suffrage with nearly 32,000 signatures — an instrumental move that led to New Zealand becoming the first self-governing country to grant national voting rights to women in 1893.
Women’s representation is still lagging in politics. In 2015, only 22 per cent of all national parliamentarians were female, a slow increase from 11.3 per cent in 1995.
A pioneering Japanese editor, writer and political activist, Raichō Hiratsuka co-founded her country’s first all-women run literary journal Seitō in 1911 through which she challenged women’s traditional roles at home. In the magazine’s inaugural issue, she emboldens women to “reveal the genius hidden within us!”
Women are severely underrepresented in the news today. Only around 1 in 4 people heard or read about in news are women. Also, women only hold 27 per cent of top management jobs in media organizations.
Doria Shafik catalyzed a women’s rights movement in Egypt when in 1951 she, alongside 1,500 women, stormed parliament demanding full political rights, pay equality and reforms to personal status laws. These efforts, along with countless others to come, helped pave the way to women’s right to vote in 1956.
Gender equality before the law still does not always translate into reality. Although more than 140 countries guarantee gender equality in their constitutions, women face inequalities directly and indirectly through laws, policies, stereotypes and social practices.
In 1951, British chemist Rosalind Franklin paved the way for the discovery of DNA’s double-helix structure through the revolutionary use of X-ray diffraction. Franklin captured the critical photo evidence through 100 hours of extremely fine beam X-ray exposure from a machine she had refined.
Women today comprise only around 30 per cent of researchers in natural sciences, engineering and technology, medical and health sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences and humanities.
The first indigenous person to win the Nobel Peace Prize, Rigoberta Menchú campaigned for social justice, ethno-cultural reconciliation and indigenous peoples’ rights during and after Guatemala’s Civil War (1960–1996). In 2006, she co-founded the Nobel Women's Initiative to magnify women’s work on peace, justice and equality.
Women are integral to lasting peace. Studies show there is a 35 per cent greater chance of peace agreements lasting 15 years when women participate. Yet women are still largely absent from the peace table.
Billie Jean King
A pioneering American tennis champion and social change activist, Billie Jean King famously threatened to boycott the U.S. Open in 1973 unless women were given equal prize money — a demand that was met, making the U.S. Open the first major tournament of its kind to offer pay equality.
AQA history controlled assessment. 13 mark question
You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.
Have you seen.
Y12's - Have you started planning what you want to do after Y13?
Oops, nobody has postedin the last few hours.
Why not re-start the conversation?
Oops, nobody is replying to posts.
Why not reply to an un-answered thread?
See more of what you like onThe Student Room
You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.
TSR Support Team
- Mr M
Connect with TSR
© Copyright The Student Room 2017 all rights reserved
The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.
Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE
While You Are Ringing In The Summer, Don't Forget To Remember The Importance Of What We Have Off For.
Home of the free because of the brave.
"The American flag does not fly because the wind moves it. It flies from the last breath of each solider who died protecting it."
On this present day in America, we currently have over 1.4 million brave men and women actively listed in the armed forces to protect and serve our country.
Currently there is an increased rate of 2.4 million retiree's from the US military
Approximately, there has been over 3.4 million deaths of soldiers fighting in wars.
Every single year, everyone look's forward to Memorial Day Weekend, a weekend where beaches become overcrowded, people fire up them grills for a fun sunny BBQ, simply an increase of summer activities, as a "pre-game" before summer begins.
Many American's have forgot the true definition of why we have the privilege to celebrate Memorial Day.
In simple terms, Memorial Day is a day to pause, remember, reflect and honor the fallen who died protecting and serving for everything we are free to do today.
Thank you for stepping forward, when most would have stepped backwards.
Thank you for the times you missed with your families, in order to protect mine.
Thank you for involving yourself, knowing that you had to rely on faith and the prayers of others for your own protection.
Thank you for being so selfless, and putting your life on the line to protect others, even though you didn't know them at all.
Thank you for toughing it out, and being a volunteer to represent us.
Thank you for your dedication and diligence.
Without you, we wouldn't have the freedom we are granted now.
I pray you never get handed that folded flag. The flag is folded to represent the original thirteen colonies of the United States. Each fold carries its own meaning. According to the description, some folds symbolize freedom, life, or pay tribute to mothers, fathers, and children of those who serve in the Armed Forces.
As long as you live, continuously pray for those families who get handed that flag as someone just lost a mother, husband, daughter, son, father, wife, or a friend. Every person means something to someone.
Most Americans have never fought in a war. They've never laced up their boots and went into combat. They didn't have to worry about surviving until the next day as gunfire went off around them. Most Americans don't know what that experience is like.
However, some Americans do as they fight for our country every day. We need to thank and remember these Americans because they fight for our country while the rest of us stay safe back home and away from the war zone.
Never take for granted that you are here because someone fought for you to be here and never forget the people who died because they gave that right to you.
So, as you are out celebrating this weekend, drink to those who aren't with us today and don't forget the true definition of why we celebrate Memorial Day every year.
"…And if words cannot repay the debt we owe these men, surely with our actions we must strive to keep faith with them and with the vision that led them to battle and to final sacrifice."
The Changing Role And Status Of Women Since 1945
Get access to this section to get all the help you need with your essay and educational goals.
1. What can you learn from Source A about the treatment of women workers at the end of the Second World War? From Source A, we can learn that at the end of WWII, many women were made redundant. This came after years of propaganda imploring them to go and work to replace the men who had gone to war.
Suddenly, the opposite was true and women were sacked and told to return to their old lives as housewives. Many, like the welder in Source A, had relished in their new found role as breadwinner and worker, and had expected to carry on in this way after the war. However, the majority of women workers went from valuable to dispensable overnight. Many employers just made women redundant, as they knew many men needing jobs would be returning to Britain and they could simply employ them instead.
This blatant display of sex discrimination came despite the loyalty and hard work that women had given, and the fact that there was still “plenty of work” left.2. Study Sources A, B and C. Does the evidence of Source C support the evidence of Sources A and B about women workers at the end of the Second World War? Explain your answer. Source C does support Source A in a few ways about the treatment of women workers at the end of WWII.
Both sources talk about women returning to the home after the war, but they disagree about the reasons behind this. The advert in Source C assumes that women would be rushing to leave their jobs and resume their duties as housewives. This contradicts the evidence in Source A, because none of the women at the welding yard wanted to leave their jobs at the end of the war. This was a fairly typical reaction, although some women did behave in the way that Source C suggested.Source C does agree with Source B as both sources agree that women should go back to the home and domestic work after the war, as a service to both family and country.
Source B is a piece of government propaganda to encourage women to return to the home. This ran contrary to what they had been saying for the past six years, and displays sexism that the government would eventually outlaw completely. Source B describes returning home as a duty to the family, and to the nation, and Source C looks upon it as something that women should be rushing in their droves to do. Overall, both sources agree that women should return to domesticity, but neither seem to care if this is voluntary or not.
3. Study Sources D and E. How useful are Sources D and E in helping you to understand why women were unable to become more independent in the 1950s and 1960s? In the post-war era of the 1950s and 60s, many women remembered their days as valued workers and yearned to return to work. However, social stereotypes were promoted in all sorts of subtle and not-so-subtle ways, such as the Janet and John book in Source E and pieces of legislation which discriminated against women. For centuries, girls had been pushed into the traditional role of housewife and mother, and boys into their role of breadwinner and household handyman.
In their role as housewife and mother, women were pushed by society and figures such as Dr. Spock to stay at home. A magistrate in London attributed the rising number of “delinquent” children to the rise in working mothers, despite the fact that only 6% of mothers with children under the age of 5 were in employment, and there were many other factors such as the influence of youth culture in films and on television. Either way, societal pressures meant that many women felt that, if they went to work, they would be labelled bad mothers and their children would grow up to be criminals.Source D, from a successful working mother, tells us how one woman felt that she had to be at home with her children. It is likely that the reason for this woman’s decision was that she felt pressurised by society and media, and that other women felt similarly pressurised.
However, this is only one woman and the sources do not otherwise indicate that many women decided to return to being a housewife. There is also no indication of why she felt that she should go back to the family home, so Source D is only of limited use. Source E provides a useful insight into the way that boys and girls were taught about their traditional roles in the Janet and John books which were popular throughout the 1950s and 60s.Overall, each source provides useful evidence of the societal pressures and prejudice that meant many women felt unable to become more independent through work, fashion and the use of government legislation which had promised equality.4.
Study Sources F and G. Use Sources F and G, and your own knowledge, to explain why the Equal Pay Act and other legislation in the 1970s did not achieve the desired effect. In 1970, the Equal Pay Act (EPA) was passed after women went on strike and held demonstrations demanding equal pay. The female Employment Secretary, Barbara Castle, wanted to avoid any further unrest and introduced the new piece of legislation. However, the scope was narrow and employers had a five year settling in period.
This allowed employers to make changes to discriminate against women within the law. Tactics included drawing up male-only short lists for jobs, and giving men and women doing the same work different titles, such as “trainee manager” and “shop assistant”. It was then perfectly legal to then put these job titles at different positions on the pay scale. Women also found that it was, and still is, incredibly difficult to prove that discrimination had taken place.Source F tells us that “new laws and regulations don’t bring social change.
The most they can do is to create a climate more favourable to change and life more tolerable for some in the meantime”. This turned out to be true, as the resistance by many men to change meant that the EPA made little difference. Women’s pay did increase in relation to men’s, but even today, on average, women only earn 80% of what their male counterparts do, partly due to the fact that many women take low paid jobs, such as cleaning, to fit around childcare.Many women found that housework and looking after their children meant that there was not enough time to do full time work.
Instead they opted for part time work, but this fell completely outside the remit of the EPA. Feminists argued that to help more women go out to work, more nurseries should be set up, preferably 24-hour ones, but these never materialised.Overall, the EPA struggled to make any real difference. This was because, as Source F explains, legislation could not change attitudes towards women in employment and the pay they should receive. Coupled with the fact that there were so many loopholes in the EPA it left women with a piece of legislation which failed to achieve the desired effect.5.
Study all of the sources. ‘Women in Britain are still second class citizens.’ Use the sources and your own knowledge to explain whether you agree with this view. During WWII, women found their feet as working mothers. During the post-war period and 1950s, women began to campaign for equal pay and rights.
During the 1960s women struck for equal pay, and gained more control over their private lives through the pill. The 1970s brought feminism and the “lame duck” EPA. The 1980s and 90s allowed women to break into senior positions, including Prime Minister, with more women that ever before in Parliament and the Cabinet. This was especially true after the 1990 resignation of the first woman Prime Minster, Margaret Thatcher. EU law ensured more gender equality and part time workers were given rights for the first time.In the last 60 years, women have come a long way in the fight for equality.
However, despite reams of legislation promising equality, this has still not been fully achieved. One example of this is in employment: women still receive 20% less than their male counterparts. There is a vast disparity in the numbers of men and women in senior positions, and in roles such as the judiciary. Few women rise to the top of their profession, due to the “glass ceiling” which prevents women from rising above a certain level.
Legislation still prevents women from doing certain kinds of work, such as working at a coal face. However, at the same time women can no longer be sacked because they are pregnant.All of this comes despite the fact that for the last 20 years girls have been outperforming boys at all levels of education. Since the mid-80s girls have become more successful than boys at both GCSE and A level.
There are also more girls in university than boys, up from a third in the 1950s. However, women are still not equal when it comes to employment opportunities.More women that ever before, particularly those who are married are combining employment with having children and housework. However, many men still only have to cope with employment, despite the advent of the “modern man” and paternity leave.
Source H shows us how today’s modern woman must take on the roles of 8 different servants, such as the nanny, cook and maid, who would have helped in the past. However, unlike the servants she does not receive money for her housework as feminists campaigned for in the 70s. Many women still feel pressured into staying at home with their pre-school children: 75% of mothers believe that women should be at home with their young children, despite more married women working at any time since WWII.Overall, women are no longer second class citizens in law due to the reams of legislation brought in to protect women’s rights, such as the Equal Pay Act. Whilst laws have, in some ways, helped significantly – some more than others – in reality they have often not changed anything. New laws and regulations don’t bring social change (Source F) and the nation’s attitudes and values have been the greatest obstruction to gender equality in Britain today.
Women have greater equality today than at any time in history, but full equality has not been achieved, and the archaic values of many of those high up in society may mean that this is never achieved within our lifetimes, if at all.
The political power in the colonial America was determined by an individual’s control over property in which women were disadvantaged by discriminatory property laws of the era. Gender was the sole reason for overreaching women discrimination in the post-colonial America, especially with respect to the denial of women suffrage rights. The denial of the women participation in the voting process worsened the already poor socio-economic status of the American women. The socio-political and economic processes worked against the women’s clamor for personal achievements.
Apart from the economic status that made the women more vulnerable compared to men, gender was effectively used to prevent the women participation in political processes such as voting and holding public offices. Essentially, the men who had property had the right to vote while women, irrespective of their wealth and loyalty in remitting taxes were denied suffrage rights. The assumption of the denial of voting rights for women was that married mothers were vulnerable to coercion by their husbands.
According this assumption, granting the women the right to vote would allow their husbands to vote twice since the women are subjects of their men and could not make independent political or voting decisions. Nonetheless, since even the unmarried women were denied voting rights, it is implicit that something beyond the influence of husbands on their wives’ voting decisions influenced the deprivation. The blatant reality is that discriminatory attitudes born by the legislators prevented them from granting women the ballot.
Through the years of 1790-1865 was a period of time called the Second Great Awakening. With the escalation of “Godless” revolutionary France and the rising anxiety of war and inequality, worries and fears began to develop in New England Pastors. This anxiety prompts a religious movement of varying Christian denominations starting revivals in early America. Revivals taught the Arminian Theory that if one displays honest repentance to God and conversion to Christianity he will find personal salvation
Gender roles refer to the set of social and behavioral norms that are socially appropriate for individuals of a specific sex. Gender roles are never comprehensive, even within a single country, and they are always historically and culturally unpredictable. Gender roles in the United States for one cultural group likely is not true for another cultural group. Similarly, gender roles in the United States have changed drastically over the time period. Gender roles has been the historical evolution from