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Ludwig Beck : Biography

Ludwig Beck : Biography

Ludwig Beck was born in Biebrich, Germany, on 29th June, 1880. He joined the German Army and by 1933 became Adjutant General of the army. Two years later he was promoted chief of general staff.

Beck opposed attempts by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party to takeover the army. In 1938 he sent an emissary to London in an attempt to get Neville Chamberlain to promise military action if Germany invaded Czechoslovakia.

When Adolf Hitler discovered that Beck as plotting against the regime and he was removed from office. Replaced by Franz Halder, Beck continued to work closely with other opponents of Hitler including Carl Goerdeler, Wilhelm Canaris, Hans Oster and Ulrich Hassell.

In the early months of 1944 Beck approached Erwin Rommel about joining the July Plot. Rommel refused, criticizing the tactic of assassination claiming that it would turn Adolf Hitler into a martyr. Instead he suggested that he should be arrested and brought to trial.

Suspected in being involved in the July Plot, Beck was arrested by on 20th July, 1944. General Erich Fromm took him into custody and demanded that he commit suicide. He succeeded only in severely wounding himself and a sergeant finished the job by shooting him in the back of the neck.

Dr. George Bell, Bishop of Chichester, had lectured in Sweden during May and June, 1942, under the auspices of the Ministry of Information. On his return the Bishop asked to see me, which he did on June 30th. He told me that two anti-Nazi German Protestant clergymen had come to Sweden to meet him. The Bishop left a memorandum with me reporting in detail what the German clerics proposed. This showed that the group they represented intended to overthrow the existing rulers, who were to be replaced by anti-Nazi members of the army and administration, former trade union leaders and churchmen. The Allies were invited to announce that, once Hitler was overthrown, they were prepared to negotiate with another Government. The names of General Ludwig Beck, Chief of Staff until 1938, Herr Karl Goerdeler, Mayor of Leipzig, and other notable figures were given as deeply involved in the movement.

Ludwig Beck

Ludwig August Theodor Beck (German: [ˈluːt.vɪç bɛk] (listen) 29 June 1880 – 20 July 1944) was a German general and Chief of the German General Staff during the early years of the Nazi regime in Germany before World War II. Although Beck never became a member of the Nazi Party, in the early 1930s he supported Adolf Hitler's forceful denunciation of the Versailles Treaty and belief in the need for Germany to rearm. Beck had grave misgivings regarding the Nazi demand for all German officers to swear an oath of fealty to the person of Hitler in 1934, but Beck believed that Germany needed strong government, which Hitler could successfully provide if the Führer was influenced by traditional elements within the military, rather than by the SA and SS. In serving as Chief of Staff of the German Army between 1935 and 1938, Beck became increasingly disillusioned and stood in opposition to the increasing totalitarianism of the Nazi regime and to Hitler's aggressive foreign policy. Public foreign-policy disagreements with Hitler made Beck resign as Chief of Staff in August 1938 . Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Ludwig Beck has received more than 818,944 page views. His biography is available in 39 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 36 in 2019) . Ludwig Beck is the 114th most popular military personnel (up from 116th in 2019) , the 296th most popular biography from Germany (down from 288th in 2019) and the 27th most popular German Military Personnel.

Ludwig Beck was a German general who was head of the army and chief of the general staff. He was one of the conspirators in the plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler on July 20, 1944.

Beck, among his ancestors were university professors, senior officers and civil servants in the Hessian-Darmstadt ministries, and after completing a chemistry degree in Heidelberg , he did his doctorate in 1861 with Robert Bunsen . He gained further theoretical experience until 1863 at the Bergakademien Freiberg and Leoben . In Freiberg he joined the Corps Franconia and in Leoben the Corps Tauriscia. He gained practical experience in mining and smelting works on the Lahn and in the Henrichshütte Hattingen. In 1864 and 1865 he was assistant to John Percy at the Royal School of Mines in England. In 1865 he returned to Germany and was until 1867 as blast furnace engineer in Altenhundem active, held in Darmstadt and Frankfurt lectures and two years later (March 1, 1869) he acquired Nassauische Rheinhütte he received from a blast furnace operation to a successful cupola foundry rebuild let. In the Villa Beck bought in 1898 in Biebrich, today's district of Wiesbaden , in addition to his entrepreneurial activity, he completed his major five-volume work "The history of iron in technical and cultural-historical relationships" , in which he not only describes the technology itself, but also describes their impact on society. This work and other publications earned him the appointment of professor on May 12, 1905, the Carl Lueg commemorative coin of the Association of German Ironworkers in 1909 and the appointment of Dr. Ing. Hc as an honorary doctorate from RWTH Aachen University . His years of research on the history of the Nassau iron industry , which had not been completed, were continued by the Prussian State Archives Director Hans Schubert and published in 1937.

His wife Bertha Beck (née Draudt) came from a Hessian family of lawyers. The middle of his three sons was Colonel General Ludwig Beck , who was involved in the assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler on July 20, 1944 . His brother Theodor Beck , two years older than him , became a partner in a machine factory in 1867 and devoted himself to the history of mechanics and mechanical engineering. His third brother Friedrich embarked on a military career and published regimental histories.

In Nazi Germany [ edit | edit source ]

In September–October 1930, Beck was a leading defense witness at the trial in Leipzig of three junior officers, Lieutenant Richard Scheringer, Hans Friedrich Wendt and Hanns Ludin. The three men were charged with membership in the Nazi Party at that time membership in political parties was forbidden for members of the Reichswehr. The three officers admitted to Nazi Party membership, and used as their defence the claim that the Nazi Party membership should not be forbidden to Reichswehr personnel. When the three officers were arrested after being caught red-handed distributing Nazi literature at their base, Beck, who was the commanding officer of the 5th Artillery Regiment based in Ulm, which the three Nazi officers belonged to, was highly furious and argued that since the Nazi Party was a force for good that Reichswehr personnel should not be banned from joining the Nazi Party. Ώ] At the preliminary hearing, Beck spoke on behalf of the three officers. Ώ] At the Leipzig trial of Ludin and Scheringer, Beck testified as to the good character of the accused, described the Nazi Party as a positive force in German life, and proclaimed his belief that the Reichswehr ban on Nazi Party membership in his opinion should be rescinded. When Lieutenant Scheringer spoke of a future war in which the Nazi Party and the Reichswehr were to fight hand in hand as brothers in a "war of liberation" to overthrow the Treaty of Versailles, Beck supported Scheringer by testifying that: "The Reichswehr is told daily that it is an army of leaders. What is a young officer to understand by that?". Ώ] Historians such as Sir John Wheeler-Bennett have noted that Beck was deliberately distorting Hans von Seeckt's Führerarmee ("Army of leaders" i.e. training soldiers to be leaders when the time came to expand the Army beyond the limits permitted by Versailles) principle by seeking to apply it to politics. Ώ] During the course of the 1930 Leipzig trial, Beck first met Adolf Hitler who also testified at the trial, and was very favourably impressed.

In 1933, upon witnessing the Nazi Machtergreifung, Beck wrote "I have wished for years for the political revolution, and now my wishes have come true. It is the first ray of hope since 1918." ΐ] In July 1934, Beck expressed some alarm at Nazi foreign policy involving Germany in a "premature war", after the failed Nazi putsch in Austria, leading Beck to warn that those in "leading positions" must understand that foreign adventures at this time might lead to Germany being forced to make a "humiliating retreat" that might in Beck's view bring about the end of Nazi Germany. Α] In August 1934, when following the death of President Paul von Hindenburg, and Hitler's assumption of the roles of powers of the Presidency, most notably the position of Commander-in-Chief, Beck wrote that Hitler's move created "favourable conditions" for the Reichswehr. Β]

Beck gained respect with the publication of his tactical manual, Truppenführung. Both Beck and General Werner von Fritsch commanded the 1st Cavalry Division, in Frankfurt an der Oder prior to assuming their command positions. During his time first as Chief of the Truppenamt (1933–1935), and then as Chief of the General Staff (1935–1938), Beck encouraged the development of armoured forces, though not to the extent that advocates of Panzer warfare like Heinz Guderian wanted. Γ] In Beck's conception of power politics, it was crucial to have German military power restored to its pre-1919 levels, and from the latter half of 1933, advocated a level of military spending beyond even those considered by Hitler. Δ] In Beck's opinion, once Germany was sufficiently rearmed, the Reich should wage a series of wars that would establish Germany as Europe's foremost power, and place all of Central and Eastern Europe into the German sphere of influence. Ε]

As Chief of the General Staff, Beck lived in a modest home in the Lichterfelde suburb of Berlin, and worked normally from 09:00 to 19:00 every day. Β] As General Staff Chief, Beck was widely respected for his intelligence and work ethic, but was often criticized by other officers for being too interested in administrative details. Β] In 1934, Beck wrote a lengthy covering letter to a long report on the British Army armour maneuvers as a way of encouraging interest in armoured warfare. Ζ] In Beck's view of the General Staff's role, the War Minister served in a mere administrative function, and the Chief of the General Staff should have been able to advise the Reich leadership directly, views that led to conflicts with the War Minister, Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, who resented Beck's efforts to diminish his powers. Η] In 1936, Beck strongly supported Hitler during the remilitarization of the Rhineland against Blomberg, who feared the French reaction to such a move. ⎖] By the end of 1937 and the beginning of 1938, Beck had come into increasing conflict with other officers over the place and importance of the General Staff in the German military hierarchy, in which Beck wished to have all of the important decision-making moved into the arms of the General Staff. ⎗]

Ludwig Beck (right) with Werner von Fritsch in 1937.

Starting in the mid-1930s, Beck created his own intelligence network comprising German military attaches, which he used both to collect information, and to leak information. ⎘] Besides military attaches, Beck also recruited civilians for his private intelligence network, of which the most notable volunteer was Carl Goerdeler. ⎘]

In May 1937, Beck refused an order to draw up orders for executing Fall Otto (Case Otto), the German plan for an invasion of Austria under the grounds that such a move might cause a world war before Germany was ready for such a war. ⎙] During the Anschluss of February–March 1938, once Beck was convinced that no war would result from a move against Austria, he swiftly drew up the orders for Fall Otto. ⎙] In Beck's conception of power politics, war was a necessary part of restoring Germany to Great Power status provided that these wars were limited in scope and Germany possessed sufficient strength and had sufficiently strong allies. ⎚]

During the Blomberg-Fritsch Crisis of early 1938, Beck saw a chance to reassert the interests and power of the Army against what he regarded as the excessive power of the SS. ⎚] The ending of the crisis in favor of the SS left Beck somewhat disillusioned.

July 20th Plot

In 1943, Beck planned two abortive attempts to kill Hitler by means of a bomb. In May 1944, a memorandum by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel made it clear that his participation in the proposed putsch was based on the precondition that Beck serve as the head of state in the new government.[70] In 1944 he was one of the driving forces of the July 20 Plot with Carl Goerdeler and Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg. It was proposed that Beck would become the head of the provisional government that would assume power in Germany after Hitler had been eliminated. The plot failed, however, and by the next morning, according to the account by Fabian von Schlabrendorff, Beck was in the custody of General Friedrich Fromm, and he offered to commit suicide ("accept the consequences"). He was the only conspirator to not have Execution by firing squad. In severe distress, Beck succeeded only in severely wounding himself, and a sergeant was brought in to administer the coup de grâce.

In 2008 a movie about the plot, Valkyrie, was made with Terence Stamp playing Beck.

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Beck entstamm ut en old hessisch Offiziersfamilie. He wurr as Söhn vun den Industriellen Ludwig Beck un de sien Fru Bertha Beck (boren Draudt) boren. Af 1898 wahn de Familie in de Villa Beck in Biebrich (siet 1926 Stadtdeel vun Wiesbaden).

Nah sien Abitur an de Diltheyschule in Wiesbaden 1898 is Ludwig Beck Junior an‘ 12. März 1898 as Fahnenjunker ("Avantageur") in dat Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 15 vun de preußisch Armee in Straßburg intreden. In de Johren 1898 un 1899 hett he den Kriegsschool in Neiße. An‘ 18. August 1899 wurr he to‘n Leutnant befördert. 1902 un 1903 weer he an de vereenigte Artillerie- un Ingenieurschool in Charlottenburg un vun 1908 bit 1911 an de Kriegsakademie Berlin kommandeert. Tüschen disse Kommandeerungen as ok bit 1912 weer he jeweils weer in sien Regiment in Straßburg un Saarburg in Lothringen tätig, af März 1912 weer he an den Groot Generalstaff in Berlin kommandeert, to de he mit Wirkung to’n 1. Oktober 1913 bi gliektiedig Beförderung to‘n Hauptmann ok versett wurr. Mit Beginn vun den Eersten Weltkrieg wurr he tonächst Tweet Generalstaffsoffizier bi dat VI. Reservekorps, 1916 Eerst Generalstaffsoffizier bi de 117., later bi de 13. Reservedivision. Sien Deenst hett he in verscheeden Verwennen an de Westfront. An‘ 12. Mai 1916 hett he Amelie boren Pagenstecher heiraadt, de eeneenhalv Johr later an‘ 16. Februar 1917, kört nahdem sien Dochter Gertrud an‘ 30. Januar 1917 boren weer, storven is [2] . To’n Enn vun dat Johr 1916 wessel he in den Generalstaff bi dat Oberkommando vun de Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz. An‘ 18. April 1918 wurr he to’n Major befördert [2] .

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Nah Kriegsenn‘ weer he in de Afwicklungsstäe vun den Grooten Generalstaff tätig un wurr 1919 in de dör de Bestimmungen vun den Versailler Verdrag stark minneseert Riekswehr övernommen. Tüschen 1919 un 1922 harr he Truppenkommandos inne un weer ok in‘ Updrag vun den General von Seeckt tätig. To‘n 1. Oktober 1922 wurr he Afdeelens-Kommandeur bi dat Artillerie-Regiment 6 in Mönster (Westfalen). En Johr later övernehm he för twee Johr de Leitung vun de Führergehilfenutbildung, vun de ehmalge Kriegsakademie, bi dat Wehrkreiskommando VI, ebenfalls in Mönster. Dornah weer he för veer Johr Chef vun den Generalstaff bi dat Wehrkreiskommando IV in Dresden. Nah sien Beförderung to‘n Oberst an‘ 1. Februar 1929 weer he af den 1. Oktober 1929 för twee Johr Kommandeur vun dat Artillerie-Regiment 5 in Fulda [2] .

De breedere Apenlichkeit wurr de domolig Oberst Beck 1930 in de so nömmt Ulmer Prozess vör dat Rieksgericht in Leipzig tegen de Leutnants Ludin un Scheringer as ok Oberleutnant Wendt ut dat 5. Artillerie-Regiment in Ulm wegen natschonalsozialistisch Zellenbildung in de Riekswehr as Tüüg ünner annern neben Hitler bekannt. As deren Regimentskommandeur hett he sück vehemtn för sien anklagten Offiziere insett, de he mit folgend Spitzfindigkeit to Siet sprung: „Es wird täglich der Reichswehr gesagt, sie sei eine Führerarmee was soll sich ein junger Offizier anders darunter vorstellen?“ [3]

An‘ 1. Februar 1931 to‘n Generalmajor befördert, wurr Beck en Johr later Artillerieführer IV in Dresden. In‘ Oktober vun dat Johr övernehm he för een Johr dat Kommando bi de I. Kavallerie-Division in Frankfort an de Oder. Sien Beförderung to‘n Generalleutnant kreeg he noch an‘ 1. Dezember vun dat Johr 1932. In de Johren 1931 bit 1933 full sien Överarbeitung vun de Vorschrift över Die Truppenführung [2] .

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In‘ Oktober 1933 wurr Beck Chef vun dat Truppenamtes in dat Riekswehrministerium, 1935 Generalstaffchef vun dat Heer. [4] [2] Nah en kört Tiet kreeg he an‘ 1. Oktober 1935 [2] den Dienstgrad General der Artillerie. As Generalstaffchef weer he neben anner Militärs för de Uprüstung vun dat Heer tostännig. In‘ Juni 1937 keem he to Gesprächen mit Marschall Pétain, General Gamelin un Kriegsminister Daladier in Paris tosommen. [2] Nahdem Adolf Hitler an‘ 5. November 1937 vör den Rieksbutenminister (Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath), den Oberbefehlshaber vun de Wehrmacht (Werner von Blomberg) as ok den Oberbefehlshaber vun dat Heer (Werner von Fritsch), de Kriegsmarine (Erich Raeder) un de Luftwaffe (Hermann Göring) sien Kriegsteelen apen dorleggt harr, hett Beck de Afsicht vun Hitler kritiseert, de Tschechoslowakei so gau as mögelk antogriepen. He funn Hitlers Dorlegungen niederschmetternd, [5] as Hoßbach hüm en Kopie vun sien Schrift wiesen dee. Beck hett woll nich grundsätzlich en Expansion in Richtung Öösterriek un Tschechoslowakei aflehnt, hüm hett aber gewaltig de Verantwortungslosigkeit, mit de Hitler bereit weer, Düütschland in en Krieg mit de Westmächten to führen, entsett. [6] In en lateren, schriftlichen un teihn Punkte umfaatend Kritik stell he dat as wünschenswert dor, dat Militär an de Entscheedungen över Krieg un Freeden to bedeeligen. [7]

1938 hett Beck versöcht, en gemeensam Vörgahn vun de Generalität tegen de Kriegsplanungen vun Hitler to organiseeren und hett von Brauchitsch den slooten Rücktritt vun de Generalität vörslahn, falls Hitler wiederhenn up den Krieg drängen dee. Dat ansluutend Generalsdrapen an‘ 4. August 1938 wies, dat alle Kommandierenden Generale en sück utwietend Krieg to dissen Tietpunkt as Katastroph ansehn dee. Bi de Fraag, of en Angreep up de Tschechoslowakei unvermeidlich ok to’n Konflikt mit de Westmächten führen dee, hebbt hüm blots de Generäle Busch un von Reichenau dorgegen spraken. As Reichenau kört dorup Hitler vun dat Drapen bericht hett, hett Hitler de verlangt, dat de Generalstaffchef afberopen wurr. [8] All in de Blomberg-Fritsch-Krise harr he en Minister anvertroot, dat de eenzig Offizier, för de he bang weer, Beck weer: „Der Mann wäre imstande, etwas zu unternehmen.“ [9] An‘ 18. August 1938 hett Beck dorüm beden, vun sien Stellung enthaben to wurrn un hett de Dienstgeschäfte an‘ 27. August an Franz Halder, [2] hett aber up Bitten vun Hitler up de apenlich Bekanntgaav vun sien Demission verzicht, wat hör de politisch Symbolkraft nehm. Mit Wirkung van‘ 1. November 1938 wurr he Generaloberst. [10] [2]

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In de folgend Johren hett sück Beck in‘ Wedderstand tegen den Natschonalsozialismus engageert. Während de Kriegsjohren leev he torüchtrucken in sien Berliner Wohnung. De Generäle un Marschälle gungen hüm woll ut’n Weg, aber mehr un mehr wurr sien Wohnung to en Zentraal vun den lütten Krink vun de natschonalkonservativen Wedderstand. Se wurr ständig vun de Gestapo observeert. Neben Carl Friedrich Goerdeler wurr Beck to en zentraal Figur vun den Wedderstand. An‘ 8. Januar 1943 keemen eerstmals Vertreder vun den militärischen un zivilen Wedderstand, ünner annern vun den Kreisauer Krink, ünner de Leitung vun Beck in de Berliner Wohnung vun Peter Graf Yorck von Wartenburg tosommen, um hör internen Ünnerscheeden in de Beoordeelung vun dat Regime, wu man dat Regime wegkriegen kunn un to de tokünftig Rull vun Düütschland in Europa ananner antoglieken. [11] Bi dit geheim Drapen wurr Goerdeler as Kanzler vun en Övergangsregeeren akzepteert. Beck weer in lateren Vereenborungen vun de Wedderstandskämper as nee Staatsböverhaupt (Reichsverweser) vörsehn

Nahdem de Anslag up Hitler scheefgahn weer wurr de Wedderstandsgrupp um Beck an de sülvig Dag kört vör Middennacht in‘ Bendlerblock in Berlin fastnommen. Hüm sülvst wurr nah eegen Bitten dör Generaloberst Friedrich Fromm de Gelegenheit to Selbsttötung geven. Nahdem dat aber tweemal fehlslahn weer, hett Fromm en Offizier den Befehl geven, de all Starvenden dood to scheeten. „Doch der erklärte sich dazu außerstande und gab den Befehl an einen Feldwebel weiter, der Beck in ein Nebenzimmer zog und dort erschoß.“ [12] So entgung Beck en demütigend Verhandlung vör den Volksgerichtshoff ünner Roland Freisler wegen Hoochverrat, as se ünner annern Generalfeldmarschall Erwin von Witzleben un Generaloberst Erich Hoepner erdulden mussen.

Becks Liek wurr, tosommen mit wiederen Opfern vun den 20. Juli, up den Alten St.-Matthäus-Karkhoff in Berlin-Schöneberg begraben. Wenig later wurrn de Dooden vun de SS exhumeert, in dat Krematorium Wedding verbrannt un de Asch up de Rieselfeldern verstreet.

Gedenktafeln gifft dat in de Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand in’ Bendlerblock in Berlin (siet 1960), an der Villa Beck in Wiesbaden-Biebrich (seit 1964) un an Becks sien vörmalig Wahnhuus Goethestraße 24 in Berlin-Lichterfelde.

1956 övernehm de kört tovör grünnd Bundeswehr de NS-Ordensburg in Sonthofen (Allgäu), de to Hitlers Tieden baut wurr un as Adolf-Hitler-Schule vun de NSDAP bruukt wurr, as Kaserne un geev hör de Naam Generaloberst-Beck-Kaserne.

1964 hett de Düütsch Bundspost en vun E. un Gerd Aretz gestalt Breefmark ut en Block to’n 20. Johrsdag vun den 20. Juli 1944 widmet.

Ludwig Beck : Biography - History

One of the most inventive, eclectic figures of the alternative era, the epitome of post-modern chic in an era obsessed with junk culture.
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Artist Biography by Stephen Thomas Erlewine

Initially pegged as the voice of a generation when "Loser" turned into a smash crossover success, Beck wound up crystallizing much of the postmodern ruckus inherent in the '90s alternative explosion, but in unexpected ways. Based in the underground anti-folk and noise rock worlds, Beck encompassed all manner of modern music, drawing on hip-hop, blues, trash rock, pop, soul, lounge music -- pretty much any found sound or vinyl dug up from a dusty crate -- blurring boundaries and encapsulating how '90s hipsters looked toward the future by foraging through the past. In another time, Beck might have stayed in the province of the underground, but he surfaced just as alternative rock turned mainstream, with his 1994 debut, Mellow Gold, launching "Loser," a hit that crossed over with the velocity of a novelty -- a notion Beck quickly punctured with a succession of indie LPs delivered in the wake of Mellow Gold, including the lo-fi folk of One Foot in the Grave, delivered on the K imprint. But the album that truly cemented Beck's place in the pantheon was 1996's Odelay, a co-production with the Dust Brothers that touched upon all of his obsessions, providing a cultural keystone for the decade while telegraphing all his future moves, from the soul prankster of Midnite Vultures to the melancholy troubadour of Sea Change. Beck moved between the extremes of satire and sincerity throughout the 21st century, sometimes fusing the two emotions -- as he did on 2008's Modern Guilt -- and slowly becoming a fixture in the music industry, a status underscored by his 2015 album Morning Phase taking home the Grammy for Album of the Year.

Fittingly, Beck came from a distinctly artistic background, the son of string arranger/conductor David Campbell and Bibbe Hansen, the latter a regular at Andy Warhol's Factory whose father was a pivotal contributor to the Fluxus art movement. Adopting the Hansen surname after his father left, Beck grew up in Los Angeles, dropping out of school in the tenth grade to play as a street busker and attend poetry slams. Bashing out blues and folk, Beck wound up assembling a home tape called The Banjo Story before departing for New York, where he operated on the margins of the anti-folk scene without ever breaking into it.

He returned to Los Angeles, where he continued to play clubs, eventually gaining the attention of Bong Load Records, an independent operated by Tom Rothrock and Rob Schnapf. All parties agreed to pair Beck's fledgling folk with hip-hop beats assembled by producer Karl Stephenson, whose kitchen provided the studio for their first efforts, including "Loser." These tapes remained unreleased as Beck recorded an album's worth of material with Calvin Johnson for the latter's K label, but the first release Beck had was the Flipside single "MTV Makes Me Want to Smoke Crack" and Sonic Enemy's cassette release of Golden Feelings. But what really broke the doors open was Bong Load's 12" single of "Loser," which garnered considerable play in L.A., coinciding with increased underground attention. Soon, Beck signed with Geffen, striking a deal that allowed him to release on independent labels. One of these immediately followed -- Fingerpaint released a 10" record A Western Harvest Field by Moonlight in January 1994 -- before the Geffen debut Mellow Gold appeared in March of that year.

Naturally, "Loser" was the lead single from Mellow Gold and it turned into an instant smash, boasting a hook that worked as an ironic underground rallying cry and a novelty crossover. Despite many positive reviews, Beck worked overtime to dispel the notion he was a novelty, quickly releasing two indie albums in succession: the noise-skronk Stereopathetic Soul Manure and One Foot in the Grave. Stereopathetic made few waves, but the stripped-back, folky One Foot in the Grave acted as a counterbalance to the gonzo Mellow Gold, illustrating the depths of his talents.

After a furious 1994, Beck laid relatively low in 1995, touring with the fifth Lollapalooza in between working on a new album with the production team the Dust Brothers, who had collaborated with the Beastie Boys on their landmark 1989 Paul's Boutique. The resulting album, Odelay, appeared in June 1996, preceded by the lanky, funky single "Where It's At," which would go on to win the Grammy for Best Male Rock Vocal. Odelay piled up acclaim and hits -- "Devil's Haircut," "Jack-Ass," and "The New Pollution" all charted around the world -- and the record went double platinum, becoming a touchstone of '90s alternative rock. An outtake from the album, "Deadweight," appeared on the soundtrack to Danny Boyle's 1997 film A Life Less Ordinary, and then Beck set to work on his next album with producer Nigel Godrich, who had just worked with Radiohead on OK Computer. Their collaboration, originally slated for an indie release but moved to Geffen, thereby setting a precedent that no future Beck LP would be released on an indie (something worked out in the courts the following year), traded futuristic rock -- either the joyous collage of Odelay or the dystopia of OK Computer -- for a quiet, pulsating, psychedelic folk-rock album called Mutations. Riding high on Odelay, the album charted well without turning out any major hits, although it did garner a Grammy for Best Alternative Music Performance.

Beck made another abrupt change in musical direction in 1999 with Midnite Vultures, a garish party record that was part satire and part salute to soul and funk, particularly Prince. Reviews were divided between ecstatic and skeptical, but the album had some real hits with "Sexx Laws" and "Deborah," and in some ways it was the apex of Beck's hipster prankster phase, a persona he shed with his next album, 2002's Sea Change. Recorded in the wake of a romantic breakup, Sea Change was another Godrich production, but it was gentle and mournful, lacking some of the gritty underpinnings of Mutations but retaining the psychedelia -- and that psychedelic edge was brought out in the supporting tour when Beck hired the Flaming Lips as his supporting band. The tour was well-received, but there were some tensions, as reported by Lips leader Wayne Coyne later.

After an extended break -- the longest he had taken between albums to date -- Beck returned in 2005 with Guero, an album that reunited him with the Dust Brothers and consciously evoked Odelay. Guero launched a few hits, including "E-Pro" and "Hell Yes," and was followed within months by Guerolito, a remixed version of the entire album. Beck continued in this direction the following year with The Information, but its Nigel Godrich production kept the album streamlined and emphasized the darker undercurrents in the songs. Some of that darkness could be heard on his eighth album, Modern Guilt, a 2008 release produced by Danger Mouse, marking his first time in 14 years that he worked with a producer who wasn't the Dust Brothers or Godrich. Modern Guilt performed respectably -- it debuted at eight on the U.S. Billboard charts and received strong reviews -- but he spent the next several years relatively quiet.

In 2009, Beck began actively pursuing a career as a producer, collaborating with Charlotte Gainsbourg on her acclaimed IRM album two years later, he produced Thurston Moore's Demolished Thoughts and Mirror Traffic by Stephen Malkmus & the Jicks. He also dipped his toe back into solo recording on the soundtrack to the 2010 Edgar Wright film Scott Pilgrim vs. the World. Still, between 2009 and 2010 much of his studio energy was devoted to his Record Club, where he and a loose collective of friends covered classic albums in their entirety the albums covered included The Velvet Underground & Nico, The Songs of Leonard Cohen, and INXS' Kick.

Beck returned to original material in 2012 via Song Reader, a collection of sheet music featuring 20 new, unrecorded songs although he didn't record versions of these songs, he did appear at Song Reader concerts featuring other musicians (and a collection of those live performances was eventually released under his name). In 2014, Beck released Morning Phase, his first new album in nearly six years and first album for Capitol. Described by the singer/songwriter as a "companion piece" to 2002's Sea Change, it appeared in February 2014, preceded by the singles "Blue Moon" and "Waking Light." Critical reception was largely positive, and the album won three Grammy Awards, including Best Rock Album and Album of the Year. Beck returned the following year with the lively single "Dreams," and the like-minded "Wow" arrived in 2016. During that year, he continued working with producer Greg Kurstin and also made guest appearances on work by Fun.'s Nate Ruess, the Chemical Brothers, M83, and Flume. Beck finally released Colors, his collaboration with Kurstin, in October 2017. It peaked at number three on the Billboard 200, and topped the modern rock and alternative albums charts. Colors won the 2019 Grammy for Best Alternative Music Album, along with the trophy for Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical.

In 2019, he contributed the song "Tarantula" to the soundtrack album Music Inspired by the Film Roma, which accompanied director Alfonso Cuarón's acclaimed work. That November, Beck released Hyperspace, an album largely produced by Pharrell Williams. Initially, Williams invited Beck to contribute to a N.E.R.D album, but the collaboration proved fruitful, resulting in the core of the record that became Hyperspace.

Tiden 1933-1938 som chef för arméns generalstab [ redigera | redigera wikitext ]

Beck utnämndes 1 oktober 1933 till chef för Truppenamt (Chef des Truppenamtes im Reichswehrministerium), det vill säga till chef för den tyska arméns dåvarande motsvarighet till generalstab.

När Reichswehr övergick i Wehrmacht, som sedan var Tysklands försvarsmakt fram till andra världskrigets slut, blev Beck 1 juli 1935 chef för arméns generalstab och general av artilleriet 1 oktober samma år. Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) infördes från 1 november 1936 som benämning på den högsta förvaltnings- och befälsmyndigheten inom den tyska armén och arméns generalstab var en del av detta överkommando. I ett memorandum skrivet 1937 kritiserade han Adolf Hitlers beslut att så snart som möjligt angripa Tjeckoslovakien. Han förespråkade visserligen ett angrepp, men ville skjuta upp det till 1940. År 1938 försökte Beck bland generalerna organisera ett gemensamt handlande riktat mot Hitlers krigsplaner och förberedde att avsätta Hitler i händelse av att krig skulle bryta ut med Tjeckoslovakien. Genom Münchenöverenskommelsen 1938 mellan stormakterna bröt emellertid aldrig några stridigheter ut.

Beck avgick som chef för arméns generalstab den 27 augusti 1938, var befälhavare för 1:a armén 1–30 september och pensionerades 31 oktober 1938 med graden generalöverste. Han var den ende tyske general, som frivilligt avgick under den nazistiska regimens tid.


Narodil se v roce 1880 ve městě Biebrich v Hesensku-Nasavsku. Byl vychováván v duchu starých pruských tradic. Původně byl důstojníkem dělostřelectva. Během první světové války bojoval na západní frontě. Po svém povýšení působil jako důstojník generálního štábu. Po válce sloužil v různých funkcích, jako velitel pluku a štábu.

V roce 1931 získal hodnost generála. Velel frankfurtské 1. jízdní divizi. Získal všeobecné uznání za své vojensko-pedagogické práce. V roce 1933 se stal náčelníkem vojenského úřadu. V červenci 1935 se stal náčelníkem generálního štábu německých pozemních sil.

Začátkem roku 1938 se společně s Wernerem von Fritschem se během německých nátlakových akcí namířených proti Československu dostal do sporu s kancléřem Adolfem Hitlerem. Během Květnové krize v roce 1938 byl přesvědčen, že Wehrmacht není na válku s Československem připraven. [1] Začal kolem sebe shromažďovat vojáky a politiky, kteří nesouhlasili s zamýšlenou válkou, a společně zvažovali svržení Hitlera, který válku prosazoval. Mezi spiklenci byli například vrchní velitel pozemního vojska Walter von Brauchitsch, náčelník Abwehru Wilhelm Canaris, důstojník Abwehru Hans Oster, velitel berlínské posádky Erwin von Witzleben, starosta Lipska Carl Goerdeler, státní tajemník v ministerstvu zahraničí Ernst von Weizsäcker a prezident Říšské banky Hjalmar Schacht. [1]

Beck také nechal o tomto plánu potají informovat anglickou vládu. Její předseda Neville Chamberlain ale nebral tyto zprávy vážně. Hitlera považoval za hráz proti pronikání bolševismu do střední Evropy, a byl přesvědčen, že se s ním dokáže dohodnout. [1]

18. srpna 1938 Beck rezignoval na svou funkci náčelníka generálního štábu (nahradil ho Franz Halder) a zakrátko byl penzionován. [1]

V roce 1943 Beck naplánoval několik neúspěšných pokusů zabít Hitlera pomocí bomb. V roce 1944 byl jedním z hlavních plánovačů červencového atentátu společně s Carlem Goerdelerem a plukovníkem Clausem von Stauffenberg. Předpokládalo se, že by se Beck mohl po úspěšném atentátu stát dočasnou hlavou vlády, která by Německo spravovala po Hitlerově smrti. Spiknutí se však nepodařilo, další ráno byl zatčen pod dohledem generála Fromma donucen spáchat sebevraždu. Nepodařilo se mu však zabít a jen se těžce zranil, přivolaný poddůstojník Wehrmachtu proto dostal za úkol ukončit jeho život ranou z pistole.

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General der Artillerie Ludwig Beck, Chef des Generalstabes des Heeres, geb.: 29.6.1880 gest.: 20.7.1944

Watch the video: Ausbildung LUDWIG BECK (January 2022).